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Title: Control of fluid flows and other systems governed by partial differential-algebraic equations
Author: Jones, Bryn Llywelyn
ISNI:       0000 0004 2688 5820
Awarding Body: Imperial College London
Current Institution: Imperial College London
Date of Award: 2010
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The motion of fluids, such as air or water, is central to many engineering systems of significant economic and environmental importance. Examples range from air/fuel mixing in combustion engines to turbulence induced noise and fatigue on aircraft. Recent advances in novel sensor/actuator technologies have raised the intriguing prospect of actively sensing and manipulating the motion of the fluid within these systems, making them ripe for feedback control, provided a suitable control model exists. Unfortunately, the models for many of these systems are described by nonlinear, partial differential-algebraic equations for which few, if any, controller synthesis techniques exist. In stark contrast, the majority of established control theory assumes plant models of finite (and typically small) state dimension, expressed as a linear system of ordinary differential equations. Therefore, this thesis explores the problem of how to apply the mainstream tools of control theory to the class of systems described by partial differential-algebraic equations, that are either linear, or for which a linear approximation is valid. The problems of control system design for infinite-dimensional and algebraically constrained systems are treated separately in this thesis. With respect to the former, a new method is presented that enables the computation of a bound on the n-gap between a discretisation of a spatially distributed plant, and the plant itself, by exploiting the convergence rate of the v-gap metric between low-order models of successively finer spatial resolution. This bound informs the design, on loworder models, of H[infinity] loop-shaping controllers that are guaranteed to robustly stabilise the actual plant. An example is presented on a one-dimensional heat equation. Controller/estimator synthesis is then discussed for finite-dimensional systems containing algebraic, as well as differential equations. In the case of fluid flows, algebraic constraints typically arise from incompressibility and the application of boundary conditions. A numerical algorithm is presented, suitable for the semi-discrete linearised Navier-Stokes equations, that decouples the differential and algebraic parts of the system, enabling application of standard control theory without the need for velocity-vorticity type methods. This algorithm is demonstrated firstly on a simple electrical circuit, and secondly on the highly non-trivial problem of flow-field estimation in the transient growth region of a flat-plate boundary layer, using only wall shear measurements. These separate strands are woven together in the penultimate chapter, where a transient energy controller is designed for a channel-flow system, using wall mounted sensors and actuators.
Supervisor: Kerrigan, Eric ; Morrison, Jonathan Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral