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Title: Psychological correlates of road crash types
Author: Meadows, M. L.
ISNI:       0000 0004 2687 6860
Awarding Body: The University of Manchester
Current Institution: University of Manchester
Date of Award: 1994
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The research reported in this thesis examines possible psychological correlates of road crash involvement, both that of car drivers in general and that of young drivers in particular. In Chapter One the importance of the prevention of road crashes is discussed. A brief review of the study of driver behaviour summarizes the range of previous research in this area. Various methods of studying driver behaviour are critically discussed. In Chapter Two the over-representation of young drivers in the crash statistics is examined. This chapter provides an overview of previous research into the correlates of young driver crashes. It is suggested that a previously overlooked, possible contributor to road crashes may be the influence of 'extra motives' on driving behaviour. Extra motives are defined as motives of the road user which do not involve the 'official' goals of safety and mobility on the road. Certain extra motives may be particularly salient to young drivers. Chapter Three reports Study One in which a measure of two extra motives was developed in the form of a Driving Motivation Questionnaire (D.M.Q.). This consisted of 50 items derived from Bliersbach and Dellen's (1978, 1980) description of five driving patterns. Bliersbach and Dellen's findings were not replicated. Two factors, driving for thrill and competitive driving, were established through factor analysis. In Chapters Six and Seven a second study is described. For Study Two a second questionnaire was produced to examine the relationship of the extra motives embodied in the D.M.Q. with self-reported commission of driving violations, errors and lapses in the form of the Driving Behaviour Questionnaire (D.B.Q.) (Reason, Manstead, Stradling, Baxter and Campbell, 1990; Reason, Manstead, Stradling, Parker and Baxter, 1991). Development and prior use of the D. B. Q. is di scussed in Chapter Four. The relationship of the D.M.Q. and the D.B.Q. to self-reported, overall crash frequency and to specific types of crashes was studied using a crash typology developed by West (1994). Development and previous use of the crash typology is discussed in Chapter Five. In Chapter Eight the results of the second study are discussed with particular reference to the following issues: 1. The replication of the three factor structure of the D.B.Q. The significant, independent prediction of specific types of crashes by the D.B.Q. factors. 2.The replication of the D.M.Q. Thrill factor obtained in Study One. The significant, independent prediction of specific types of crashes by the Thrill factor. 3.The failure to replicate the D.M.Q. Competition factor obtained in Study One. The attainment of a D.M.Q. Sedate driving factor. 4.The reliability and usefulness of West's classification scheme. 5. The association of varying driver characteristics with distinct crash types, particularly the roles of inexperience and age in young driver crashes. 6. The suggestion that; Driver errors may only have serious consequences when the driver making the error or a nearby driver is violating or thrill seeking; Thrill seeking may only lead to crashes when the driver seeking thrill or another nearby road user makes an error; Violations, on the other hand, may cause crashes no matter how skilful the driver or those drivers nearby.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available