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Title: Effects of elevated temperature exposure on the microstructural evolution of Ni(Cr)-Cr3C2 coated 304 stainless steel
Author: Ding, Yi
ISNI:       0000 0004 2683 4660
Awarding Body: University of Nottingham
Current Institution: University of Nottingham
Date of Award: 2009
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Agglomerated and sintered 25Ni(Cr)-75Cr3C2 powder was deposited onto 304 stainless steel substrates by HVOF thermal spraying. Post spraying thermal treatments were carried out on as-sprayed samples at different temperatures (700°C and 800°C) in air (oxidising). Samples were heat treated from 1hour up to 16 days and furnace cooled. The powder, coatings and substrate were characterised by a variety of techniques including optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), microhardness testing and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results of agglomerated and sintered powder coating microstructural characterisation show that the as-sprayed coating comprised the carbide phase Cr3C2, a small amount of amorphous phase and a metallic phase which was Ni-rich. The spray process also led to the formation a small amount of Cr2O3 in the coatings. In the heat treated coatings, the carbides Cr7C3 and Cr23C6 were found at the coating substrate interface, the amorphous structure phase was eliminated. With heat treatment, matrix phase supersaturation was reduced, while widespread carbide nucleation and growth generated an expansive carbide skeletal network especially near the coating/substrate interface. An initial softening of the coatings occurred but subsequently the hardness increased again after 2 days was a function of carbide development. The oxidation kinetics of the 25Ni(Cr)-75Cr3C2 powder and coatings during elevated temperature oxidation in air at 650°C to 1000°C have also been studied. The oxidation behaviour was found to be governed by a parabolic rate law up to 800°C. The activation energy of the coating oxidation reaction, Q, was found to be 164 kJ/mol. The mechanism of high temperature oxidation of 25Ni (Cr)-75Cr3C2 coating on top surface has been discussed. Inter-diffusion between the coating and the 304 stainless steel substrate has been investigated. A distribution of the precipitate phase Cr23C6 within the 304 steel was found from etched substrate samples. The decrease of the microhardness measured with distance away from the interface also revealed that diffusion occurred between coating and substrate during the annealing period. Carbon diffusion distances at different annealing conditions in this work have been measured according to the appearance of the Cr23C6 precipitates and variation in microhardness away from the interface. A simple mathematical model has been used to calculate the theoretical carbon diffusion distance in substrate.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: TS Manufactures