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Title: The Impact of Economic Globalization on the National Policies of Developing Countries : The Case of the Jordan's Agricultural, Information and Communication Technology and Trade and Investment Policies
Author: Al-Zoubi, Mohammad Orsan Muhsein
ISNI:       0000 0004 2690 3443
Awarding Body: The University of Buckingham
Current Institution: University of Buckingham
Date of Award: 2009
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The main objective of this thesis is to provide a theoretical and empirical analysis of the effects of economic globalization (neoliberal ideology) on the Jordanian national policies pertaining to agriculture, information and communication technology, and trade and investment for the period from 1989 to 2004 from postmodern perspective. The central problem addressed in this thesis is the way economic globalization (neoliberal ideology) has dominated the thinking of Jordanian policy makers under the claim to recover from market failure and to achieve socio-economic development. Subsequent to this, another deterrent emerges. During preparation, formulation, and implementation of Jordanian policies in the said areas only the authority voice is heard, a situation justified by rationality and the national interest. In relation to this practice, we explored and investigated who were included and who were excluded, as well as, who were the winners and losers in the policy making process at all levels from macro (global) to intermediate (state) to micro (local institutions). This initially became apparent through the reorientation of Jordanian policy towards a free market ideology, then through the strategies of Structural Adjustments Programs (SAPs), Free Trade Agreements (FTAs), deregulations and the cut-down of social programs. The discourses surrounding the national policy have increased in complexity from one orientation towards the privatization of public enterprises, to another in the hope to build a strong economy. This has led to change the structure of power between different classes and has led to new social configurations. In turn we investigated and assessed the process of policy in terms of what, who, why and how? A Post-modern perspective which forms the methodological basis for this thesis is used to capture the complex relation between local and global. The traditional universality linear theories no longer give sufficient understanding of the complexity of policy analysis in an uncertain and dynamic disequilibrium world. The theoretical framework for our analytical critical theory synthesizes the modernism and postmodernism theories. Drawing from this premise, "critical postmodern policy analysis" has been introduced as the core element of this analysis. This study is concerned with the transformation of policy and how this transformation is guided by a discourse, consisting of arguments put forward by economists, policy makers, politicians and other experts. This is consistent with a Foucauldian framework. The thesis argues that each policy stage is varied in terms of its contexts, styles, participants and dispositions, and that each stage has unique cultural configurations. Therefore, three critical postmodern approaches were utilized namely: historiography, archaeology and governmentality to examine each policy context at all levels, over the policy trajectory from global to local. Policy historiography was coupled with the early stage of the influence of globalization; policy archaeology with the formation stage of policy development; and policy governmentality with the implementation stage to explore policy in practice. Various documents, in-depth interviews, unpublished files and researcher observation were utilized in order to assess the impact of economic globalization on the three investigated national policies guided by the three critical postmodern approaches: historiography, archaeology and governmentality. As revealed by historiography the neoliberal economic model makes Jordan's government unresponsive to its citizens. It is like hegemonic structure which constantly provides mechanisms of inclusion and exclusion. As demonstrated by thesis, the market is far from being fair, and creating new social configurations over the times. The thesis revealed through archaeology that Jordanian bureaucrats, policy experts and public officials have dominated the context of policy text production by using some strategies such as dislocation, legislation, replacement and the leaking of rumors. On the other side the thesis pointed out through governmentality that policies contradict each other, because of different mentalities and different value systems. As revealed by the thesis the three ministries have been based on ad hoc practices rather than on planned strategic decisions. For example, the Ministry of Agriculture has gradually adopted neoliberal policy while the Ministries of Trade and Information Technology were more radical in this process. Governmentality is also revealed that domination, or what is called control at a distance by which policies are centralized in goals and decentralized in means prevailed in the three ministries. This thesis has the shed light on the Islamic discourses. This is an attempt to show how the Islamic movement, from a post modern perspective approach, influenced the collective social imagination of Jordanian people during the nineties of the past century and afterwards. The Islamic movement emerged as an end result support for needy people having been deserted and the adoption of neo-liberal policies by the Jordanian government. As a rule of thumb, postmodernism obviously emphasizes the role of ideology in shaping the configurations of people's thinking, perception and acts.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available