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Title: Computed tomography of chemiluminescence : a 3D time resolved sensor for turbulent combustion
Author: Floyd, Jeremy
ISNI:       0000 0004 2687 3862
Awarding Body: Imperial College London
Current Institution: Imperial College London
Date of Award: 2009
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Time resolved 3D measurements of turbulent flames are required to further understanding of combustion and support advanced simulation techniques (LES). Computed Tomography of Chemiluminescence (CTC) allows a flame’s 3D chemiluminescence profile to be obtained by inverting a series of integral measurements. CTC provides the instantaneous 3D flame structure, and can also measure: excited species concentrations, equivalence ratio, heat release rate, and possibly strain rate. High resolutions require simultaneous measurements from many view points, and the cost of multiple sensors has traditionally limited spatial resolutions. However, recent improvements in commodity cameras makes a high resolution CTC sensor possible and is investigated in this work. Using realistic LES Phantoms (known fields), the CT algorithm (ART) is shown to produce low error reconstructions even from limited noisy datasets. Error from selfabsorption is also tested using LES Phantoms and a modification to ART that successfully corrects this error is presented. A proof-of-concept experiment using 48 non-simultaneous views is performed and successfully resolves a Matrix Burner flame to 0.01% of the domain width (D). ART is also extended to 3D (without stacking) to allow 3D camera locations and optical effects to be considered. An optical integral geometry (weighted double-cone) is presented that corrects for limited depth-of-field, and (even with poorly estimated camera parameters) reconstructs the Matrix Burner as well as the standard geometry. CTC is implemented using five PicSight P32M cameras and mirrors to provide 10 simultaneous views. Measurements of the Matrix Burner and a Turbulent Opposed Jet achieve exposure times as low as 62 μs, with even shorter exposures possible. With only 10 views the spatial resolution of the reconstructions is low. However, a cosine Phantom study shows that 20–40 viewing angles are necessary to achieve high resolutions (0.01– 0.04D). With 40 P32M cameras costing £40000, future CTC implementations can achieve high spatial and temporal resolutions.
Supervisor: Lindstedt, Peter ; Kempf, Andreas Sponsor: EPSRC
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral