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Title: The first permanent Ottoman-Turkish embassy in Europe : the embassy of Yusuf Agah Efendi to London 1793-1797
Author: Yalcinkaya, Mehmet Alaaddin
ISNI:       0000 0004 2679 3395
Awarding Body: The University of Birmingham
Current Institution: University of Birmingham
Date of Award: 1993
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The First Permanent Ottoman-Turkish Embassy in Europe: The Embassy of Yusuf Agah Efendi to London (1793-1797) One of the reforms of the Nizam-i Cedid (New order) concerned diplomatic practice and this thesis examines the establishment of the first permanent Ottoman embassy to London and the work of the first permanent ambassador Yusuf Agah Efendi from 1793 to 1797. The work discusses the style of the reports submitted by Ottoman ambassadors before the establishment of the permanent embassy to London. The preparations for the embassy and the discussions between the Reis Efendi and the British ambassador about its establishment are also studied. In addition, the journey to London, the early days of the embassy in London and the conduct of the embassy are analysed. The diplomatic activities of Yusuf Agah indicate that he was responsible for protecting his country's interests against Russian propaganda. Another concern was the intermittent clashes between the French and British warships inside Ottoman territorial waters; namely the Mikonos and Nemesis affairs. His reports on the Anglo-Russian treaty, and on Denmark and Sweden are analysed. Yusuf Agah's remarks on Francis Jackson's appointment as ambassador to Istanbul and on the Tunisian envoy are also studied. As ambassador he was principal defender of Ottoman subjects' commercial interests and was also responsible for protecting their rights according to international law and treaty agreements between the Ottoman empire and Britain. He was also charged by the Sultan to recruit military experts from Britain for service in the Ottoman empire. He also introduced to the British people Ottoman- Turkish customs. His public inauguration in 1795 was one of the greatest ceremonial events in Britain in the last decade of the eighteenth century. The press paid an enormous amount of attention to him and everything concerned with his embassy. The thesis also analyses the end of his mission and his return to Istanbul. The thesis examines in detail the reports of Yusuf Agah (Havadisname-i ingiltere and the account of his secretary, Mahmud Raif, in which each describes his, views and impressions of Britain and British institutions it, particular the military, financial, political organisations. Both Turkish and British sources agree that the Ottoman state adhered to European diplomatic regulations and understood the importance of reciprocal diplomacy between states in the late eighteenth century.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available