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Title: Railway interference management : TLM modelling in railway applications
Author: Ogunsola, Adesegun A.
ISNI:       0000 0004 2675 8530
Awarding Body: Loughborough University
Current Institution: Loughborough University
Date of Award: 2008
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This thesis deals with the application of analytical and numerical tools to Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) management in railways. Analytical and numerical tools are applied to study the electromagnetic coupling from an alternating current (AC) electrified railway line, and to study the electrical properties of concrete structure - a widely used component within the railway infrastructure. An electrified railway system is a complex distributed system consisting of several sub-systems, with different voltage and current levels, co-located in a small area. An analytical method, based on transmissions line theory, is developed to investigate railway electromagnetic coupling. The method is used to study an electrified railway line in which the running rails and earth comprise the current retum path. The model is then modified to include the presence of booster transformers. The analytical model can be used to study the railway current distribution, earth potential and electromagnetic coupling - inductive and conductive coupling - to nearby metallic structures. The limiting factor of the analytical model is the increasing difficulty in resolving the analytical equation as the complexity of the railway model increases. A large scale railway numerical model is implemented in Transmission Line Matrix (TLM) and the electromagnetic fields propagated from the railway model is studied. As this work focuses on the direct application of TLM in railway EMC management, a commercially available TIM software package is used. The limitation of the numerical model relates to the increased computation resource and simulation time required as the complexity of the railway model increases. The second part of this thesis deals with the investigation of the electrical properties of concrete and the development of a dispersive material model that can be implemented in numerical simulators such as TIM. Concrete is widely used in the railway as structural components in the construction of signalling equipment room, operation control centres etc. It is equally used as sleepers in the railway to hold the rails in place or as concrete slabs on which the whole rail lines are installed. It is thus important to understand the contribution of concrete structures to the propagation of electromagnetic wave and its impact in railway applications. An analytical model, based on transmission line theory, is developed for the evaluation of shielding effectiveness of a concrete slab; the analytical model is extended to deal with reinforced concrete slab and conductive concrete. The usefulness and limitation of the model is discussed. A numerical model for concrete is developed for the evaluation of the effectiveness of concrete as a shield. Initially, concrete is modelled as a simple dielectric material, using the available dielectric material functionality within TLM. It is noted that the simple dielectric model is not adequate to characterise the behaviour of concrete over the frequency range of interest. Better agreement is obtained with concrete modelled as a dispersive material having material properties similar to that exhibited by materials obeying Debye equation. The limitations of the dispersive material model are equally discussed. The design of conductive concrete is discussed, these have application in the railway industry where old existing structures are to be converted to functional rooms to house sensitive electronic system. A layer of conductive concrete can be applied to the facade to enhance the global shielding of the structure.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available