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Title: Broadband adaptive beamforming with low complexity and frequency invariant response
Author: Koh, Choo Leng
Awarding Body: University of Southampton
Current Institution: University of Southampton
Date of Award: 2009
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This thesis proposes different methods to reduce the computational complexity as well as increasing the adaptation rate of adaptive broadband beamformers. This is performed exemplarily for the generalised sidelobe canceller (GSC) structure. The GSC is an alternative implementation of the linearly constrained minimum variance beamformer, which can utilise well-known adaptive filtering algorithms, such as the least mean square (LMS) or the recursive least squares (RLS) to perform unconstrained adaptive optimisation. A direct DFT implementation, by which broadband signals are decomposed into frequency bins and processed by independent narrowband beamforming algorithms, is thought to be computationally optimum. However, this setup fail to converge to the time domain minimum mean square error (MMSE) if signal components are not aligned to frequency bins, resulting in a large worst case error. To mitigate this problem of the so-called independent frequency bin (IFB) processor, overlap-save based GSC beamforming structures have been explored. This system address the minimisation of the time domain MMSE, with a significant reduction in computational complexity when compared to time-domain implementations, and show a better convergence behaviour than the IFB beamformer. By studying the effects that the blocking matrix has on the adaptive process for the overlap-save beamformer, several modifications are carried out to enhance both the simplicity of the algorithm as well as its convergence speed. These modifications result in the GSC beamformer utilising a significantly lower computational complexity compare to the time domain approach while offering similar convergence characteristics. In certain applications, especially in the areas of acoustics, there is a need to maintain constant resolution across a wide operating spectrum that may extend across several octaves. To attain constant beamwidth is diffcult, particularly if uniformly spaced linear sensor array are employed for beamforming, since spatial resolution is reciprocally proportional to both the array aperture and the frequency. A scaled aperture arrangement is introduced for the subband based GSC beamformer to achieve near uniform resolution across a wide spectrum, whereby an octave-invariant design is achieved. This structure can also be operated in conjunction with adaptive beamforming algorithms. Frequency dependent tapering of the sensor signals is proposed in combination with the overlap-save GSC structure in order to achieve an overall frequency-invariant characteristic. An adaptive version is proposed for frequency-invariant overlap-save GSC beamformer. Broadband adaptive beamforming algorithms based on the family of least mean squares (LMS) algorithms are known to exhibit slow convergence if the input signal is correlated. To improve the convergence of the GSC when based on LMS-type algorithms, we propose the use of a broadband eigenvalue decomposition (BEVD) to decorrelate the input of the adaptive algorithm in the spatial dimension, for which an increase in convergence speed can be demonstrated over other decorrelating measures, such as the Karhunen-Loeve transform. In order to address the remaining temporal correlation after BEVD processing, this approach is combined with subband decomposition through the use of oversampled filter banks. The resulting spatially and temporally decorrelated GSC beamformer provides further enhanced convergence speed over spatial or temporal decorrelation methods on their own.
Supervisor: Weiss, Stephan Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: QA75 Electronic computers. Computer science