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Title: Synthesis and application of thiourea-S,S-dioxide derivatives
Author: Apps, James Frederick Shuan-Liang
ISNI:       0000 0004 2678 7614
Awarding Body: University of Warwick
Current Institution: University of Warwick
Date of Award: 2008
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The structure and synthesis of N,N'-disubstituted thiourea-S,S-dioxides were investigated experimentally and computationally. Hydrogen peroxide oxidation of acyclic and cyclic N,N'-dialkylthioureas furnished S,S-dioxides in agreement with computational predictions. Some s,S,S-trioxides were also isolated. An X-ray crystallographic study of N,N'-diisopropylthiourea dioxide, fIrst synthesised in this work, verilled computational models. The prediction of a stable N,N'-diarylthiourea dioxide derivative was supported by successful isolation of the dioxide. The application of N,N'-diisopropylthiourea dioxide as a reducing agent was investigated. Removal of tosyl groups from N-tosylaziridines, deprotection of CBz-amines and reduction of nitriles could not be realised. However, aldehydes and ketones were successfully reduced to the respective alcohols in yields comparable with that of thiourea dioxide. Disulfides and N-tosylsulfIIDides were reduced to a higher degree with N,N'· diisopropylthiourea dioxide than thiourea dioxide under simple, mild conditions. The mechanism of decomposition of N,N'-diisopropylthiourea dioxide to give radical anions was investigated with N-tosylsulfIIDides and a cyclopropylketone. The study revealed that at high pH, heterolysis of the C-S bond in N,N'-diisopropylthiourea dioxide led to the formation of a sulfmate dianion sol. The dianion was thought to rapidly oxidise to a powerful reducing species, the radical anion SO;- and subsequently effect reduction via a single-electron transfer pathway. A full mechanism of decomposition and reduction is proposed. An investigation into the role of thiourea dioxides as N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) synthons was carried out. It was thought that decomposition of ethylenethiourea dioxides, via the elimination of sulfur dioxide, would provide an alternative approach to metal NHC complex synthesis. Oxaziridine oxidation of acyclic thioureas, successfully established in this work, was applied to the preparation of ethylenethiourea dioxides. A short study revealed considerable potential for thiourea dioxides as NRC precursors.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: QD Chemistry