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Title: Residual stress and fatigue crack growth life prediction in fastener holes cold-worked by uniform indentation in 2024-T351 aluminium alloy
Author: Tan, Jeffrey Meng-Lee
ISNI:       0000 0004 2674 2993
Awarding Body: Open University
Current Institution: Open University
Date of Award: 2007
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This thesis concerns primarily the residual stress characterisation in fastener holes coldworked by a novel StressWave process, and the prediction of the fatigue crack growth under the influence of such residual stress. Aerospace 2024-T351 aluminium alloy plate of 6.35 mm thickness containing a nominal 06.35 mm hole was used. Using neutron and laboratory X-ray diffraction measurements, a large compressive residual stress was found in StressWave and split-sleeve cold-worked holes. Detailed stress mapping indicates that a StressWave hole contains a highly symmetric residual stress field with a wider compressive region. Conversely, the split-sleeve technique generates a complex asymmetric stress variation through the specimen thickness and around the hole. Independently, a comprehensive finite element study was conducted to reveal the residual stress development associated with the two distinct cold-working techniques at various stages. Favourable agreement was achieved between the experiment and simulations. The deformation mechanism associated with the cold-working process is decisive to the behaviour of the residual stress field created. The symmetric crack growth behaviour observed in StressWave specimens permits a through-thickness crack geometry to be considered. Accordingly, Green's functions for a single crack and two symmetric cracks originating from the edge of a circular hole were developed. These solutions were verified using weight function and finite element analysis and are therefore appropriate for subsequent study of fatigue crack growth. A theoretical framework was proposed to explicate the interaction of residual stress with the superimposed loading at the crack tip, which was mathematically expounded as a function of stress intensity factor and stress ratio. This analytical framework provides a reasonable correlation between the mean stress and crack closure criteria. As a demonstration, a finite-width plate containing a centre hole with a single crack, with surface residual stress measured by X-Ray diffraction was analysed. It was revealed that for a predictive task, both the mean stress and crack closure definitions necessitate different requirements of material database and parametric definitions. Next, the fatigue testing suggested that the fatigue durability of fastener holes treated by the StressWave method generally outperformed those observed for split-sleeve samples. Prediction according to the unified theory produced encouraging results matching the experimental fatigue crack growth measurement. Detailed analysis showed that suitable parametric calibration and the appropriate use of crack models were imperative to achieve reliable prediction. Future efforts necessary for accuracy of prediction work for StressWave cold-worked holes are discussed.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral