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Title: The illegal wildlife trade and deep green criminology : two case studies of fur and falcon trade in the Russian Federation
Author: Wyatt, Tanya
ISNI:       0000 0004 2674 4139
Awarding Body: University of Kent
Current Institution: University of Kent
Date of Award: 2008
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The illegal wildlife trade is a prevalent crime that has not been explored by criminologists, who could contribute to the exploration of its impacts and its perpetration and thus recommend ways to reduce it. Traditional criminology has been legally positivistic, which ignores environmental structural harms that remain within the norm of the legal sphere. The emerging field of green criminology, keeping with the critical tradition in criminology, considers harms, but this is applied in an anthropocentric or speciesist manner. Using two case studies of wildlife trafficking in Russia Far East (fur and falcon), this research seeks to expand these limited concepts. This enhancement is accomplished through the development of a new perspective called deep green criminology that can be applied to other green crimes as well. With this ecocentric stance that recognizes the intrinsic value of all species and their right to humane treatment and a life free from suffering, other beings and the harms against them and the environment become visible as subjects of criminological inquiry. In this research this means exploration not only of activities defined as crimes (illegal trade of endangered species), not only of environmental harms which affect humans and certain species singled out by humans (poaching and capturing of charismatic fauna), but also includes harms that fall outside of these distinctions (inhumane trapping/capturing and treatment whether legally or illegally obtained, and the associated use of animals for clothing and sport). Additionally, this paper presents the three structural harms that are problematic in regards to wildlife trafficking; the danger to the environment; the cruelty to animals; and the threat to national and human security through the connection to corruption, transnational crime, organized criminal networks, and terrorism. By exploring who is involved, how it occurs, and where it takes place for each of these trades, typologies are created that provide a basis for further examination of the trade in illegal wildlife. Solutions are offered to improve the policies and enforcement that affect the illegal wildlife trade, as are recommendations for addressing the economics of supply and consumer demand for illegal wildlife and wildlife products. The conclusions that result from this thesis tempered the proposed deep green criminological perspective to a more pragmatic approach.
Supervisor: Ray, Larry J. ; Harrop, Stuart R. Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
Keywords: H Social Sciences