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Title: Studies on palladium-catalysed organic transformations
Author: Cawley, Mark James
ISNI:       0000 0004 2668 6928
Awarding Body: University of London
Current Institution: University College London (University of London)
Date of Award: 2008
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Studies were undertaken to develop a general and practical room temperature protocol for the Buchwald-Hartwig reaction, whereby any aryl halide might be coupled with any N-H moiety using Pd-NHC (AT-Heterocyclic Carbene) catalysis. Efforts using imidazolium salts, where the Pd-NHC complex is formed in situ, resulted in high- yielding reactions of aryl bromides and secondary cyclic amines within 7 h at room temperature, with yields typically in the range of 78-89%. However, only modest yields were obtained with primary amines, secondary acyclic amines and aryl chlorides. Subsequent research with an isolated (NHC)Pd(R-allyl)Cl complex enabled the efficient high-yielding coupling of a wider range of substrates (including aryl chlorides) in as little as 1 min. The commercially-available base lithium hexamethyldisilazide (LHMDS) was found to be key to the success of both protocols. Additionally, intramolecular Heck reactions of benzyl halides with pendant olefin chains have also been performed to afford several seven-membered rings with the use of a commercial laboratory microwave reactor. It was possible to effect the cyclisation of 2-(A-homoallyltosylamino)benzyl chloride and (2-chloromethylbenzyl)malonic acid diethyl ester in yields of 98% and 95% respectively yield within 20 min at 90°C. 2-Homoallyloxybenzyl chloride also underwent reaction in 33% yield at 140°C.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available