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Title: Mapping the underworld : integrated GNSS based positioning and GIS based GNSS simulation
Author: Taha, Ahmad Adnan Mohammad
ISNI:       0000 0004 2668 6661
Awarding Body: University of Nottingham
Current Institution: University of Nottingham
Date of Award: 2008
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The United Kingdom utility services are facing the challenge of "mapping the underworld" over four million kilometres of buried pipes and cables (a combination of water, sewage, gas, electricity and drainage). Having accurately mapped pipes and cables increases the efficiency of street works projects, but many existing pipes and cables were only mapped relative to other topographic map features and to varying levels of accuracy. The aim of this thesis is to research various means of improving the positional accuracy of underground utilities in built-up areas through the use of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), integrated with other positioning systems such as Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) and total stations. The reliability and accuracy of the integrated system is an underpinning issue and this thesis looks at testing both current and future GNSS constellations in a controlled environment at the University of Nottingham campus. GNSS integrated with an INS in the first instance, and integrated with a total-station in the second instance, are tested using a network of established points in urban canyon environments on the campus. Several, new technologies were developed by the author including: Urban Canyon GNSS Simulation (UCGS) - a GIS tool; Multiple Step Integration Technique (MSIT) - a methodology for GNSS/INS data collection and processing; and Continuous Updating Technique (CUPT) - a software for GNSS/total-station integration. The results of different simulations provide evidence that using more than one GNSS constellation will significantly increase the availability of GNSS positions in urban canyon environments. However, position availability using the criteria of 5 or more satellites with a Position Dilution Of Precision (PDOP) value of 6 or less for centimetre level is not guaranteed 100% of the time when using GNSS alone. Considering the results of the integrated GNSS/INS system, the position availability was guaranteed 100% of the time in all environments, but the accuracy is not enough to meet utility service requirements. The best results used GNSS integrated with a total-station and showed that, in this case, position availability to a centimetre level of accuracy can be guaranteed 100% of the time in all environments.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Natural Environment Research Council
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: TD Environmental technology. Sanitary engineering