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Title: Near-capacity MIMOs using iterative detection
Author: El-Hajjar, Mohammed H.
ISNI:       0000 0001 3442 829X
Awarding Body: University of Southampton
Current Institution: University of Southampton
Date of Award: 2008
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In this thesis, Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) techniques designed for transmission over narrowband Rayleigh fading channels are investigated. Specifically, in order to provide a diversity gain while eliminating the complexity of MIMO channel estimation, a Differential Space-Time Spreading (DSTS) scheme is designed that employs non-coherent detection. Additionally, in order to maximise the coding advantage of DSTS, it is combined with Sphere Packing (SP) modulation. The related capacity analysis shows that the DSTS-SP scheme exhibits a higher capacity than its counterpart dispensing with SP. Furthermore, in order to attain additional performance gains, the DSTS system invokes iterative detection, where the outer code is constituted by a Recursive Systematic Convolutional (RSC) code, while the inner code is a SP demapper in one of the prototype systems investigated, while the other scheme employs a Unity Rate Code (URC) as its inner code in order to eliminate the error floor exhibited by the system dispensing with URC. EXIT charts are used to analyse the convergence behaviour of the iteratively detected schemes and a novel technique is proposed for computing the maximum achievable rate of the system based on EXIT charts. Explicitly, the four-antenna-aided DSTSSP system employing no URC precoding attains a coding gain of 12 dB at a BER of 10−5 and performs within 1.82 dB from the maximum achievable rate limit. By contrast, the URC aided precoded system operates within 0.92 dB from the same limit. On the other hand, in order to maximise the DSTS system’s throughput, an adaptive DSTSSP scheme is proposed that exploits the advantages of differential encoding, iterative decoding as well as SP modulation. The achievable integrity and bit rate enhancements of the system are determined by the following factors: the specific MIMO configuration used for transmitting data from the four antennas, the spreading factor used and the RSC encoder’s code rate. Additionally, multi-functional MIMO techniques are designed to provide diversity gains, multiplexing gains and beamforming gains by combining the benefits of space-time codes, VBLAST and beamforming. First, a system employing Nt=4 transmit Antenna Arrays (AA) with LAA number of elements per AA and Nr=4 receive antennas is proposed, which is referred to as a Layered Steered Space-Time Code (LSSTC). Three iteratively detected near-capacity LSSTC-SP receiver structures are proposed, which differ in the number of inner iterations employed between the inner decoder and the SP demapper as well as in the choice of the outer code, which is either an RSC code or an Irregular Convolutional Code (IrCC). The three systems are capable of operating within 0.9, 0.4 and 0.6 dB from the maximum achievable rate limit of the system. A comparison between the three iteratively-detected schemes reveals that a carefully designed two-stage iterative detection scheme is capable of operating sufficiently close to capacity at a lower complexity, when compared to a three-stage system employing a RSC or a two-stage system using an IrCC as an outer code. On the other hand, in order to allow the LSSTC scheme to employ less receive antennas than transmit antennas, while still accommodating multiple users, a Layered Steered Space-Time Spreading (LSSTS) scheme is proposed that combines the benefits of space-time spreading, V-BLAST, beamforming and generalised MC DS-CDMA. Furthermore, iteratively detected LSSTS schemes are presented and an LLR post-processing technique is proposed in order to improve the attainable performance of the iteratively detected LSSTS system. Finally, a distributed turbo coding scheme is proposed that combines the benefits of turbo coding and cooperative communication, where iterative detection is employed by exchanging extrinsic information between the decoders of different single-antenna-aided users. Specifically, the effect of the errors induced in the first phase of cooperation, where the two users exchange their data, on the performance of the uplink in studied, while considering different fading channel characteristics.
Supervisor: Hanzo, Lajos Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: TK Electrical engineering. Electronics Nuclear engineering