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Title: Three-dimensional study of facial changes in children aged 11-14 years
Author: Kau, Chung How
ISNI:       0000 0001 2430 7873
Awarding Body: Cardiff University
Current Institution: Cardiff University
Date of Award: 2007
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Conclusions: The following conclusions could be drawn from this study of facial morphology: 1. The three-dimensional laser capture technique described is both valid and reliable. 2. The study has shown that the use of three-dimensional imaging is a feasible method in the analyzing and perceiving of changes to the face over time. 3. Males and females show differing facial morphology. 4. The magnitudes of surface changes are larger in males than in females. 5. There is a significant difference in the timing of the surface changes in males than in females, with males exhibiting later changes. 6. There is forward growth particularly occurring in the nose, brows, lios and vertical dimensions of the face. 7. There seems to be a deepening of the eyes and flattening of the cheeks. 8. Clinicians should be aware of three-dimensional surface changes that result from growth and treatment. 9. Growth has been shown to be variable in this age group of 11-14 year olds. Some children have illustrated significant growth changes whilst others very little, and this may depend on the period of capture related to their growing period. 10. There was a difference between the facial morphology of females who received and did not receive orthodontic treatment. These differences were seen particularly in the upper and lower lip regions. 11. However, there was very little difference in individuals who received and did not receive orthodontic treatment. 12. Asymmetric growth patterns were seen occurring in 35% of the cohort studied with right sided differences being more than left sided differences.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available