Use this URL to cite or link to this record in EThOS:
Title: Mechanical and biological augmentation of allograft and synthetic graft in impaction bone grafting
Author: Bolland, Benjamin J. R. F.
ISNI:       0000 0001 3469 1434
Awarding Body: University of Southampton
Current Institution: University of Southampton
Date of Award: 2008
Availability of Full Text:
Access from EThOS:
Access from Institution:
Aims: This thesis has three main aims: • To investigate the potential role of human bone marrow stromal cells (HBMSC) in Impaction Bone Grafting (IBG). • To investigate the potential role of a synthetic graft, Poly (DL-lactic acid), (PDLLA) as a tissue engineering scaffold and a graft extender in IBG. • To investigate methods to improve graft compaction and reduce fracture risk in IBG. Methods: Part I: The biocompatibility and mechanical properties of HBMSC seeded onto allograft or PDLLA were compared to allograft or PDLLA alone in vitro. Part II: Evidence of biocompatibility, neovascularisation and new bone formation in impacted allograft and PDLLA scaffolds seeded with HBMSC, in vivo was assessed and compared to allograft and PDLLA alone. Part III: The laboratory work was translated into the clinical setting with implantation of impacted allograft seeded with HBMSC for the treatment of bone defects in two case studies. Part IV: The role of vibration in IBG technique to reduce fracture risk and improve graft compaction and prosthetic stability was assessed in an in vitro femoral IBG model. Results: Part I: HBMSC seeded onto morsellised allograft or PDLLA, and cultured under osteogenic conditions in vitro were able to withstand the forces equivalent to a standard femoral impaction and were able to differentiate and proliferate along the osteogenic lineage. The living composite formed provided a biomechanical advantage, with increased interparticulate cohesion and shear strength when compared to allograft alone. Part II: HBMSC seeded onto morsellised allograft or PDLLA, impacted and implanted subcutaneously in nude mice demonstrated cell viability and histological evidence of new bone formation and neovascularisation after 28 days. Part III: In two case studies impacted allograft augmented with marrow-derived autogenous cells was used to treat bone voids in the proximal femur. Both patients made an uncomplicated clinical recovery. Imaging confirmed filling of the defects with very encouraging initial graft incorporation. Histochemical staining of graft samples demonstrated that a live composite graft with osteogenic activity had been introduced into the defects. Alkaline phosphatase and immunohistochemical staining techniques confirmed the bone phenotype of the autotransplanted cells. Part IV: Vibration assisted compaction of morsellised allograft reduced the peak loads and hoop strains transmitted to the femoral cortex during graft compaction, improved graft compaction in the proximal and middle femoral regions, which in turn conferred improved mechanical stability of the prosthesis under cyclical loading, demonstrated by a reduction in stem subsidence. Conclusions: • HBMSC when combined with either allograft or synthetic graft (PDLLA) can survive the forces of a standard IBG and under osteogenic conditions, differentiate and proliferate along the osteogenic lineage. HBMSC and allograft / PDLLA composites confer an additional biomechanical advantage over allograft / PDLLA alone. • Increased new bone formation and neovascularisation has been demonstrated in vivo in allograft and PDLLA / HBMSC composites compared to allograft or PDLLA alone. • Tissue engineering principles combining morsellised allograft and HBMSC composites have been utilised to fill bony voids in two clinical cases, with good clinical outcome. • By reducing peak loads, hoop strains and femoral fracture risk, and improving graft compaction and prosthetic stability the use of vibration and a perforated tamp is a potential new safer more flexible IBG technique. • Utilising tissue engineering techniques and improved graft impaction methods provides avenues to augment the biological and mechanical properties of morsellised allograft, and potentially increase the longevity of revision hip arthroplasty performed using the IBG technique.
Supervisor: Oreffo, Richard ; Dunlop, Douglas Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: RD Surgery ; TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General) ; QH301 Biology