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Title: The crusading expeditions of 1101-2
Author: Mulinder, Alec C.
ISNI:       0000 0001 3429 6100
Awarding Body: University of Wales Swansea
Current Institution: Swansea University
Date of Award: 1996
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There exists a great continuity in crusading policy between the years 1095-1101 on behalf of the papacy. The crusading expeditions which left for the east in 1101 can not be separated from the broader crusading effort in these years, and should be seen as a second wave of crusading armies, rather than as a separate crusade. The crusading expeditions of 1101-2 owe their origin in part to the energetic efforts of the papacy to continue the crusading policy established by Urban II at Clermont in 1095. The motivation behind the crusading armies which left for the east in 1101 differs only slightly from those which left for the east in 1096. A desire to emulate the success of the armies of the First Crusade remains the only clear cut distinction which prompted people from all levels of society to journey to the east in 1101. At the heart of the popularity behind the crusade message in the years 1095-1101 remains the deep religious piety prevalent in all levels of society This appears to be equally spread across wide areas of western Europe. The crusading expeditions of 1101-2 are more in the nature of pilgrimages than the armies of the First Crusade. This feature is particularly noticeable in the largely Bavarian army commanded by Welf IV duke of Bavaria. It would be a mistake however to see the crusading expeditions simply in terms of pilgrimages. All the crusading armies suffered considerable damage in Asia Minor from enemy attacks, and still brought valuable military aid to the kingdom of Jerusalem. The military importance of the crusader army did not end with the defeat at Ramla in 1102. Many thousands of crusader infantry were present at the second battle of Jaffa in 1102 which saved the kingdom of Jerusalem from collapse.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available