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Title: An assessment of the political economy of trade between Jordan and the United States of America
Author: El-Anis, Imad H.
ISNI:       0000 0001 3442 4512
Awarding Body: Nottingham Trent University
Current Institution: Nottingham Trent University
Date of Award: 2008
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This thesis considers the political economy of trade between Jordan and the United States. In so doing a number of questions are asked regarding the national interests which have led to the facilitation of bilateral trade, the nature of contemporary trade and market integration as well as the impacts of these on inter-state cooperation. Throughout this thesis the role of Jordanian and US engagement in international institutions is considered and conclusions formed regarding the utility of these in trade relations and inter-state cooperation. It is found that the Jordanian government's key interests over the past decade or so have been the pursuit of economic growth and stability. It is also found that these interests have been pursued through economic reform at the domestic level and trade liberalisation through international institutions at the international level. It is also concluded that the United States is pursuing a number of key policy goals in the Middle East and North Africa. These are, securing sustainable access to the region's resources, gaining greater access to the region's markets and achieving inter-state cooperation with MENA states. It is demonstrated that the United States is pursuing these goals by encouraging states in the region to engage in international institutions and liberalise trade with each other and with the United States to increase economic integration and inter-state cooperation. The convergence of the two states' policy directions has led to inter-state cooperation in the facilitation of trade between Jordan and the United States. In order to assess the current nature of contemporary trade between Jordan and the United States and what the impacts of inter-state cooperation have been, trade in three economic sectors has been studied. It is demonstrated that trade in textiles and clothing, a low value-added manufacturing sector, has significantly increased since the process of trade liberalisation began in 1997. However, this form of trade almost exclusively consists of exports from Jordan to the United States. Trade in pharmaceutical products is also studied. It is found here that, while bilateral trade in these goods does exist, this form of economic activity is quite limited and has not greatly increased in the post-liberalisation era. Thus economic integration has been limited in these high-value added goods. The study is taken further when trade in financial services is considered. The conclusion here is that this form of trade is extremely limited and has not been impacted upon in any significant way by inter-state cooperation and engagement with international institutions. The overall conclusions are that Jordan and the United States as state actors have engaged with international institutions and liberalised bilateral trade in the hope of pursuing national policy goals. The impact, however, of international institutions and trade liberalisation on economic growth, economic integration, interdependence and inter-state cooperation has been limited. Some significant growth in trade has occurred, but only in certain sectors, and some economic growth in Jordan has been witnessed as a result. However, wide-ranging integration between the two markets has not occurred because non-state actors are largely not engaging with trade and economic activity between the markets. Furthermore, inter-state cooperation has been restricted to specific economic issue areas. It is found that the utility of international institutions and trade liberalisation in this case is restricted by the agency of non-state actors and their roles in trade and market integration. The originality of this thesis lies in both what is studied and how it is studied. In short, this study attempts to address a gap in IPE literature which, broadly speaking, discusses Jordan and US-Jordan trade relations. Furthermore, this study acknowledges the Trans-Atlantic divide in IPE and the related contemporary debates but remains free from advocating one or the other camp. Instead a reflective approach is adopted in the use of critical liberal institutionalist theorywhich remains free from these constraints and develops a non-western-centric approach.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available