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Title: Pencil and Pixel: Identifying the relationship between paper-based and computer-based preliminary graphic design processes
Author: Stones, Catherine Mary
ISNI:       0000 0001 2433 162X
Awarding Body: University of Leeds
Current Institution: University of Leeds
Date of Award: 2008
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This study examines the strengths and weaknesses of using paper-based and computer-based design tools during graphic design ideation. It focuses on student designers' use of these tools, involving both synthesis of form and generation of graphic ideas. The study includes discussions regarding definitions of graphic design, the design process and creativity. It isolates the principles of vertical and lateral thinking as key elements in this process. Key characteristics of sketching and digital designing are examined by theme, referring to both existing empirical research and practitioner testimony. Key themes isolated for discussion include words versus pictures, ambiguity and reinterpretation and the use of ready-made or self-generated forms. It presents results of primary research regarding both design process and outcome. Experiment 1 featured a group of student designers who devised solutions to two graphic design tasks using paper or computer-based tools. Three strategies were examined in detail and it was concluded that paper-based working supports the use ----~~------ .'--------- --.. _-~ .'.-_._._--_._ .. _...._....__._._--_._----_._-----~----------_.__. - - - ... _-_... _-- ---- . -_._--- --------_._-_.. of words and reinterpretation more strongly than digital working. It also demonstrated how the use of ready-mades and use of preinventive forms occurs during digital working, impacting on both fluency of results and efficiency of process. In Experiment 2, students were asked to perform a simple synthesis exercise involving syntactic properties only. A taxonomy of synthesis strategies was developed and this revealed how a potent means of combining form was achieved most often using paper. It was concluded that the act of drawing, and careful logical engagement with form enables more potent results to be made. In terms of originality it was also suggested that paper enabled more unique (in the dataset) solutions to be made than the computer. The study concludes by discussing strategies used when using certain tools in relation to vertical or lateral thinking styles. Both styles are needed in ideation activity. We need to ensure that the educator finds both ways to integrate ideation and tool activity into the curriculum, encouraging the way students use the sketch, and altering the way students use digital tools for ideation.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available