Use this URL to cite or link to this record in EThOS:
Title: Characteristics of HIV-1 specific T cell responses in healthy, HIV-1 negative vaccine recipients
Author: Winstone, Nicola
ISNI:       0000 0001 3570 9069
Awarding Body: University of Oxford
Current Institution: University of Oxford
Date of Award: 2008
Availability of Full Text:
Full text unavailable from EThOS.
Please contact the current institution’s library for further details.
It is estimated that there are currently 42 million individuals living today with human immunodeficiency virus-l (HIV-1) infection. Highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) is the only treatment available to date, which reduces viral load and delays progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), but adherance can be a challenge due to side effects caused by drug toxicity, its cost if medication. is not free, and the complicated regimen involved (Akileswaran, Lurie et al. 2005). Resistant mutant strains evolve after long term therapy (Vaclavikova, Weber et al. 2005). These expensive drugs are not available for social and economic reasons to 80% of infected individuals in . the developing world (UNAIDS 2004). A vaccine to this virus will probably be the most effective method of stemming the pandemic (McMichael and Hanke 2002). Correlates of protection to induce sterilizing .immunity against HIV infection, or to control viral replication and prevent transmission· during chronic infection are as yet, unknown. However an association has been observed between long term non progression to disease, and the presence of functional HIV specific T cell responses. A novel Clade A HIV-l vaccine was designed to elicit T cell responses, delivered as pTH.HIVA or MVA.HIVA and has been trialled in HIV negative humans over the last 5 years. Results of the most recent clinical trials are presented, using sensitive T cell assays optimised in this study. The longevity, functional and phenotypic properties of HIV specific T cells generated by vaccination were examined. The most immunogenic vaccine regimen was observed using a pTH.HIVA DNA prime, followed by a pox virus vectored boost. mvA specific memory T cells that produced IFN-y as measured in a cultured ELISPOT, were detectable in 50% of individuals who had received vaccine up to 3 Yz years previously. These cells expanded in culture and produced anti-viral cytokines and chemokines. Through understanding the quality of vaccine induced populations of cells with regards to potential antiviral function, we may progress towards designing a HIV vaccine and immunisation schedule that will be efficacious in stemming the global pandemic.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available