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Title: Surface modification of wool by novel 'dry' finishing to impart shrink resistance,improved dyeability and printability .
Author: Shao, Jianzhong.
ISNI:       0000 0001 3397 0300
Awarding Body: University of Manchester : UMIST
Current Institution: University of Manchester
Date of Award: 1998
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This project involved studying the surface modification of wool by novel "dry" finishing to impart shrink resistance, improved dyeability and printability. Two "dry" treatments, gaseous fluorination and UV/ozone treatment, were evaluated. Fluorination is a powerful, surface sensitive oxidation treatment which imparts wettability to wool and improves the shrink resistance, dyeability and printability of wool. In combination with polymer treatment, fully washable wool is produced. UV/ozone treatment is a photosensitised oxidation treatment. This treatment also imparts benefits to wool in terms of shrink resistance, dyeability, and printability; in particular, improved low temperature dyeing of wool with reactive dyes can be achieved. Subsequent sulphite treatment further improves the shrink resistance by nucleophilic C-S fission. An optimised UV/ozonelbleaching process was developed for wool printing preparation. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Static Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SSIMS) were used to probe the surface nature of wool. It was revealed that the major lipid component in the outermost wool surface, C21 fatty acid (I8-MEA), is sensitive to chemical attack and is almost entirely removed/modified by the fluorination and UV/ozone treatment. It was also found that oxidation of cystine disulphide bonds occurs. FT-IR and FT-Raman analyses indicate that the major oxidation product of cystine in both treatments is cysteic acid, with the UV/ozone treatment producing significantly more intermediate cystine oxidation products in wool. SEM analysis shows that both treatments cause little physical damage to the wool scale structure, while FT-Raman and DSC studies indicate that there are no significant changes in the a-helix structure of the fluorinated or UV/ozone treated wool. ESR analysis shows that UV/ozone treatment produces significant amountsof thiol free radicals which on wetting are converted to thiol anions. Both fluorination and UV/ozone treatment are simple, dry processes, with low or zero- AOX.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available