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Title: Exercise and metabolic disturbances : effects on oxidative stress generation and vascular function
Author: McClean, Conor Michael
ISNI:       0000 0001 3623 0383
Awarding Body: University of Ulster
Current Institution: Ulster University
Date of Award: 2007
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Vascular dysfunction is a pivotal step in the aetiology of cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of global mortality. Certain metabolic disturbances (postprandial hypertriglyceridemia - PHTG, and impaired glucose tolerance - IGT) have been identified as risk factors for vascular dysfunction, via an oxidative stress mechanism. Exercise has long been regarded as beneficial in tackling CVD but its role on oxidative stress and su~sequent vascular function is less well defined. The principal . . aim of this thesis is to examine the effects of exercise intervention on oxidative stress generation and vascular function in conditions of metabolic disturbance. The findings of Study 1 demonstrate that an acute bout of moderate intensity aerobic exercise did not change arterial function (as measured by pulse wave velocity - PWV) when compared to rest alone. However, a 1 hour bout of moderate exercise did increase the levels of the antioxidants lycopene and retinol suggesting a decrease in oxidative stress. Studies 2 and 3 illustrates that acute moderate intensity exercise can ameliorate the. postprandial vascular dysfunction induced by the ingestion of a highfat meal via a reduction in oxidative stress (LOOH) and an increase in antioxidant activity (Study 2; SOD, Study 3; retinol and lycopene). Study 3 demonstrated that an acute bout ofpre meal exercise had no effect on measures ofgastrointestinal transit. Study 4 illustrates that acute aerobic exercise can improve arterial function in obese individuals with IGT, a group who are known to be more susceptible to vascular disease. These changes were directly correlated with reductions in glucose concentrations but were not associated with changes in lipid metabolism and oxidative stress biomarkers. An exercise training regime (Study 5) was shown to improve arterial function in the same group of obese subjects with IGT. This was in combination to reductions in body mass, glucose and TG concentrations, and oxidative stress. The improvements in arterial function are perhaps due to the effects of exercise on glucose and lipid metabolism and the subsequent effect on free radical generation. The results of the studies described within this thesis provide evidence for acute and chronic exercise as key interventions to modulate the vascular dysfunction associated with PHTG and IGT. However, further research is required to define the precise biochemical mechanisms that perpetuate such adaptations.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Ulster University, 2007 Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available