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Title: Electrostimulation (TENS) in healthy humans: effects of different frequencies, intensities and stimulation
Author: Claydon, Leica Sarah
ISNI:       0000 0001 3558 6417
Awarding Body: Keele University
Current Institution: Keele University
Date of Award: 2007
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Aim: To investigate the efficacy of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) parameter combinations (defined in terms ofintensity, frequency and stimulation site) on experimental pain models in healthy humans. Methods: A systematic review ofthe literature was conducted. This served to inform th~ design ofthe primary studies, which investigated the simultaneous applications of TENS at two sites using different parameter combinations. Randomized, doubleblind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trials were employed using repeated measurements ofpressure pain threshold. The sample size was defined so as to provide 80% statistical power, at a two-tailed 5% significance level, to detect a large effect (~ 0.08), comparing each parameter combination to both aplacebo group and a control group. Results: Systematic review evidence did not support the use ofcommonly applied TENS applications, such as 'Conventional TENS' and 'Acupuncture-like TENS'. Results ofthe primary studies results revealed, that the concurrent application (TENS at two sites) of such modes (Segmental 'Conventional TENS' and extrasegmental 'Acupuncture-likeTENS') does not achieve maximal hypoalgesia. In concurrent TENS applications, high-intensity TENS is required for maximal andprolonged bypoalgesic responses, along with different frequencies at site. Furthermore, continuous stimulation is recommended, the alternating frequency pattern (3 seconds 4H.z13 seco,nds 110Hz) did not achieve optimal effects. Conclusions: Ineffective responses to TENS may be explained in part by inadequate TENS parameter applications. The results ofthese investigations further contribute to the evidence base concerning the hypoalgesic efficacy of this modality.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available