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Title: Properties and utilisation of camel milk
Author: Gammoh, Sana' Issa
ISNI:       0000 0001 3487 4839
Awarding Body: University of Reading
Current Institution: University of Reading
Date of Award: 2006
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It has been shown that a typical source of camel milk in Jordan contains 123g l-1 total solids, of which around 27g is protein, 30g fat, 39g lactose and 8.2g ash. More detailed analyses revealed much higher levels of vitamin C (33mg l-1) and iron (4.1mg l-1) than for bovine milk. Seasonal variations were noted, and these were associated with the availability of drinking water and changes in the plant flora on which the camels were grazing. The low level of protein in camel milk (compared to bovine milk) and the chemical nature of the caseins means that, in the past, the milk was neither fermented to yoghurt nor used as a base for a semi-hard/hard cheese. However, in this study, a Nabulsi cheese was produced that had the same chemical composition as the commercial cheese made from bovine milk. The camel milk cheese was also acceptable to a taste panel. As the camels were hand milked with poor hygiene during this project, total colony counts in the raw milk were usually in the region of 1.0 x 106 colony-forming units (cfu) ml-1. Such counts make the milk unsuitable for retail sale, and hence a small pasteurising plant was established. By applying Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point system (HACCP) principles to the operation, pasteurised milk with counts of 1.1 x 103 cfu ml-1 was obtained. It is hoped that the success of this plant will encourage other dairies in Jordan to employ HACCP correctly to raise the microbial quality of their products; a survey of three dairies in Jordan showed that, although they were claiming to apply HACCP programmes, many aspects of product safety were overlooked.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available