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Title: Personal exposure to particulate matter in buses
Author: Song, Wei Wei
ISNI:       0000 0001 3471 1079
Awarding Body: University of York
Current Institution: University of York
Date of Award: 2007
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Personal exposure levels to particles inside buses were investigated in two northern UK cities (Bradford and York). Mass concentrations of particles in two size fractions (PMlO and P~h.5) and number concentrations of particles 0.3 to 15 um were measured by using two real-time optical monitors. Factors which may result in high exposure to particles in different size classes were recorded and statistically analysed. In order to further numerical understanding of the concentrations of particles in buses, a three-dimensional computer model was developed from a previous indoor model. The model was used to simulate and predict particle concentrations in buses, based on empirically determined parameters, and compared with measured in-bus and out-bus particle concentrations. Personal exposures to particles were found to be higher than corresponding ambient roadside particle concentrations, as well as those measured in previous studies in other indoor microenvironments, such as homes and offices. PMlO and PM2.5 levels were higher in morning and evening rush hours, compared to off-peak periods. Statistical analysis indicated that factors which were associated with higher concentrations included ambient particle concentrations, numbers of bus stops, numbers of traffic stops, passenger activity, routes, types of buses, seat position and window status. The effect of these different factors varied between particle size classes. Re-suspension by passenger activity was identified as a major factor especially for coarse particles. This was also used as the only in-bus. emission source for the in-bus model (IBAIR) simulations. The simulation results indicated that the IBAIR model could broadly simulate the particle concentrations inside buses, and could be used to assess the contribution of activities within buses and outside concentrations to particle levels within buses. The results of both measurements and models suggest that exposure of regular commuters inside buses could be of potential health significance and needs further assessment given policies to encourage the use of public transport. Keywords: particulate matter, personal exposure, bus, transport, size distribution, modeling
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available