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Title: Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in moving subjects : application of fetal, neonatal and adult brain studies
Author: Jiang, Shuzhou
ISNI:       0000 0001 3590 6003
Awarding Body: Imperial College London
Current Institution: Imperial College London
Date of Award: 2008
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Imaging in the presence of subject motion has been an ongoing challenge for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Motion makes MRI data inconsistent, causing artifacts in conventional anatomical imaging as well as invalidating diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) reconstruction. In this thesis some of the important issues regarding the acquisition and reconstruction of anatomical and DTI imaging of moving subjects are addressed; methods to achieve high resolution and high signalto- noise ratio (SNR) volume data are proposed. An approach has been developed that uses multiple overlapped dynamic single shot slice by slice imaging combined with retrospective alignment and data fusion to produce self consistent 3D volume images under subject motion. We term this method as snapshot MRI with volume reconstruction or SVR. The SVR method has been performed successfully for brain studies on subjects that cannot stay still, and in some cases were moving substantially during scanning. For example, awake neonates, deliberately moved adults and, especially, on fetuses, for which no conventional high resolution 3D method is currently available. Fine structure of the in-utero fetal brain is clearly revealed for the first time with substantially improved SNR. The SVR method has been extended to correct motion artifacts from conventional multi-slice sequences when the subject drifts in position during data acquisition. Besides anatomical imaging, the SVR method has also been further extended to DTI reconstruction when there is subject motion. This has been validated successfully from an adult who was deliberately moving and then applied to inutero fetal brain imaging, which no conventional high resolution 3D method is currently available. Excellent fetal brain 3D apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps in high resolution have been achieved for the first time as well as promising fractional Anisotropy (FA) maps. Pilot clinical studies using SVR reconstructed data to study fetal brain development in-utero have been performed. Growth curves for the normally developing fetal brain have been devised by the quantification of cerebral and cerebellar volumes as well as some one dimensional measurements. A Verhulst model is proposed to describe these growth curves, and this approach has achieved a correlation over 0.99 between the fitted model and actual data.
Supervisor: Hajnal, Joseph V. Sponsor: Dr Richard Lee and the Lee Family
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral