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Title: Control of a hybrid electric vehicle with predictive journey estimation
Author: Cho, B.
ISNI:       0000 0001 3545 5126
Awarding Body: Cranfield University
Current Institution: Cranfield University
Date of Award: 2008
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Battery energy management plays a crucial role in fuel economy improvement of charge-sustaining parallel hybrid electric vehicles. Currently available control strategies consider battery state of charge (SOC) and driver’s request through the pedal input in decision-making. This method does not achieve an optimal performance for saving fuel or maintaining appropriate SOC level, especially during the operation in extreme driving conditions or hilly terrain. The objective of this thesis is to develop a control algorithm using forthcoming traffic condition and road elevation, which could be fed from navigation systems. This would enable the controller to predict potential of regenerative charging to capture cost-free energy and intentionally depleting battery energy to assist an engine at high power demand. The starting point for this research is the modelling of a small sport-utility vehicle by the analysis of the vehicles currently available in the market. The result of the analysis is used in order to establish a generic mild hybrid powertrain model, which is subsequently examined to compare the performance of controllers. A baseline is established with a conventional powertrain equipped with a spark ignition direct injection engine and a continuously variable transmission. Hybridisation of this vehicle with an integrated starter alternator and a traditional rule-based control strategy is presented. Parameter optimisation in four standard driving cycles is explained, followed by a detailed energy flow analysis. An additional potential improvement is presented by dynamic programming (DP), which shows a benefit of a predictive control. Based on these results, a predictive control algorithm using fuzzy logic is introduced. The main tools of the controller design are the DP, adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference system with subtractive clustering and design of experiment. Using a quasi-static backward simulation model, the performance of the controller is compared with the result from the instantaneous control and the DP. The focus is fuel saving and SOC control at the end of journeys, especially in aggressive driving conditions and a hilly road. The controller shows a good potential to improve fuel economy and tight SOC control in long journey and hilly terrain. Fuel economy improvement and SOC correction are close to the optimal solution by the DP, especially in long trips on steep road where there is a large gap between the baseline controller and the DP. However, there is little benefit in short trips and flat road. It is caused by the low improvement margin of the mild hybrid powertrain and the limited future journey information. To provide a further step to implementation, a software-in-the-loop simulation model is developed. A fully dynamic model of the powertrain and the control algorithm are implemented in AMESim-Simulink co-simulation environment. This shows small deterioration of the control performance by driver’s pedal action, powertrain dynamics and limited computational precision on the controller performance.
Supervisor: Vaughan, N. D. Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Fuel economy ; Online predictive control ; Dynamic programming ; Adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference system ; Software-in-the-loop co-simulation