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Title: The effects of temperature and time of first feeding on egg and fry development in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L
Author: Koss, David Rhoderick
ISNI:       0000 0001 3601 9895
Awarding Body: University of Stirling
Current Institution: University of Stirling
Date of Award: 1994
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The first part of this study investigated the effects of varying temperature regimes within the range of 8-22°C on the development and survival of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) eggs and alevins. The temperature tolerance of eggs was lower than that of alevins: egg mortality increased above 11°C and no eggs survived to eyeing or to hatching at 16 and 14°C, respectively; alevin mortality increased above 16°C and no alevins survived at 22°C. Optimal survivals of eggs and alevins occurred at 8-11°C and 10-14°C, respectively. Subsequent survival at later stages of development was largely determined by survival at earlier stages. Developmental abnormalities among eggs (pin-eyed eggs) and alevins (abnormal hatching and yolk-sac oedema) appeared to be temperature-dependent. Development time in days from fertilisation to eyeing, hatching and maximum alevin wet weight (MAWW) varied inversely with temperature. The sum of degree-days from fertilisation to eyeing and to MAWW was similar at all temperatures, but declined with increasing temperature from eyeing to hatching. The hatching period was similar for all temperatures except 8°C where it was significantly longer. Although alevin size at hatching was not temperature-dependent within the range of 8-12°C, alevin size at MAWW decreased progressively with increasing temperature (10-20°C) during the alevin stage. Fry size at first feeding did not affect their subsequent growth rate or survival. Advanced fry which were fed earliest grew at similar rates to those produced at lower temperatures and attained the greatest weight. Biomass gain was more dependent upon survival than upon mean fish weight. The second part of this study investigated the effects of timing of first feeding on fry growth and survival. Alevins fed prior to final yolk resorption were larger and had lower mortalities than those fed after MAWW. Although the "window" of first feeding opportunity lasted several weeks, delaying feeding beyond MAWW reduced absolute growth. A 5-week delay led to mortalities approaching 60%. However, first feeding can be delayed beyond MAWW for 1-2 weeks at 10°C without adversely affecting subsequent survival or growth rate.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Atlantic salmon Development ; Fishes Eggs