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Title: Perthes disease in the dog : its incidence, histological and radiological features, including a discussion of the comparative aspects of the condition in man and the dog
Author: Lee, Robin
ISNI:       0000 0001 3607 3189
Awarding Body: University of Glasgow
Current Institution: University of Glasgow
Date of Award: 1974
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The incidence of Perthes disease in the dog, and its histological and radiological features are described and discussed. The changes observed have been related to the duration of the clinical signs in an attempt to clarify the sequence of events occurring throughout the course of the disease. In addition an attempt has been made to correlate the features seen histologically with those seen on the radiograph. The results of these studies have been compared to the reported incidence of Perthes disease, and with descriptions of the histological and radiological changes, seen in children. The various aetiological theories are also discussed. The incidence was studied in a series of two hundred and twenty seven cases, and the condition was found to occur with equal frequency in both sexes, and showed bilateral involvement in 14.5% of the cases studied. The age at which the initial clinical signs were noted ranged from one month to seven years, however the majority of cases were less than one year old, and the peak incidence occurred at six to seven months of age. The affected breeds were all small in size and the majority of cases were found in West Highland White Terriers, Cairn Terriers, and Miniature Poodles. These incidence data are very comparable with those reported for the condition in man, with the exception of the lack of a clear sex differential in the dog, whereas in man the incidence is approximately four or five times higher in males than females. The histological features observed in a series of eighty one cases of Perthes disease in the dog are described, and the results tabulated and illustrated with histograms. They suggest that the sequence of events is initiated by a vascular accident, which may be either prolonged or repeated, to an otherwise normal proximal femoral epiphysis. This results in necrosis of the bone and marrow. Growth of the articular cartilage continues and results in an increase of thickness of the cartilage. As a result of continued weight bearing there is trabecular fragmentation, cavitation and deformation of the articular surface. This may possibly be associated with changes in the soft tissues in the acetabular fossa, resulting in lateral displacement of the femoral head. Revascularization of the necrotic areas starts initially with hyperaemia of the metaphysis and the subsequent ingrowth of vessels and granulation tissue around the periphery of the growth plate. There is then progressive revascularization/of the femoral head by a process of 'creeping substitution', which is possibly complicated or hindered by further ischaemic episodes, or trabecular damage and cavitation. Deformities of the articular surface develop due to continued weight bearing and abnormal growth of the epiphysis and metaphysis, This deformity once present cannot then be corrected. The epiphyseal growth plate is initially affected by ischaemia of the epiphysis, resulting in a cessation of longitudinal growth, with disruption of the cartilage columns. The closure of the growth plate often appears to occur simultaneously with revascularization. Trabecular thickening, fibrosis of the marrow, subchondral cavitation and deformity are all features of the late results of the healing process. The histological changes present in the specimens studied agree in most respects with the limited number of reports of the histo-pathology in man, and it is suggested that with the exception of the changes in the growth plate, and allowing for a different time scale, the sequence of events in man may well be similar to that suggested for the dog.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: SF600 Veterinary Medicine