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Title: Heterogeneous crystallisation of polyethylene terephthalate : a study of the influence of organic and inorganic additives on the rate of crystallisation of polyethylene terephthalate and the subsequent changes in morphology and mechanical properties
Author: Ibbotson, C.
ISNI:       0000 0001 3585 8582
Awarding Body: University of Bradford
Current Institution: University of Bradford
Date of Award: 1976
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The effect of various inorganic and organic additives as possible nucleating agents on the crystallisation behaviour of P. E. T. and the suosequent influence on the morphological and mechanical properties has been examined. Various methods of mixing(: the polymer and additive were investigated and a method involving the screw-Extrusion of the polymer and the additive was ultimately adopted. Crystallisation studies were carried out using differential scanning calorimetry under dynamic and isothermal modes. The results produced under conditions of isothermal crystallisation were analysed by means of a computer. Despite differences between batches of polymer all the additives with the exception of indigo produced a nucleating effect in the polymer as indicated by an increase in the rate of crystallisation compared with that of the base polymer. Two organo-metallic substances (sodium benzoate and sodium stearate) proved to be the most effective in this respect by decreasing the degree of supercooling of the polymer by 20 [degrees]. Morphological studies were carried out on isothermally crystallised samples, after etching and replication using a transmission electron microscope. A nodular structure whose dimensions were sensitive to both the nucleating agent and the temperature of crystallisation was observed. Mechanical testing of samples direct from the D. S. C. was carried out using a compression method. The breaking loads were found to vary with both the type of nucleating agent used and the crystallisation temperature chosen. A separate study involving the exanination of the resulting fracture surfaces by scanning electron microscopy revealed that a, high breaking load was associated with a fine discontinuous structure whereas lower breaking loads were characterised by a more continuous linear appearance. This implies a higher energy of fracture due to the increased surface area of the fracture surface of the former.
Supervisor: Sheldon, R. P. Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) ; Crystallisation ; Mechanical properties ; Additives ; Nucleating agents