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Title: Development of CMOS active pixel sensors
Author: Greig, Thomas Alexander
ISNI:       0000 0001 3518 9083
Awarding Body: Brunel University
Current Institution: Brunel University
Date of Award: 2008
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This thesis describes an investigation into the suitability of complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensor (APS) devices for scientific imaging applications. CMOS APS offer a number of advantages over the established charge-coupled device (CCD) technology, primarily in the areas of low power consumption, high-speed parallel readout and random (X-Y) addressing, increased system integration and improved radiation hardness. The investigation used a range of newly designed Test Structures in conjunction with a range of custom developed test equipment to characterise device performance. Initial experimental work highlighted the significant non-linearity in the charge conversion gain (responsivity) and found the read noise to be limited by the kTC component due to resetting of the pixel capacitance. The major experimental study investigated the contribution to dark signal due to hot-carrier injection effects from the in-pixel transistors during read-out and highlighted the importance of the contribution at low signal levels. The quantum efficiency (QE) and cross-talk were also investigated and found to be limited by the pixel fill factor and shallow depletion depth of the photodiode. The work has highlighted the need to design devices to explore the effects of individual components rather than stand-alone imaging devices and indicated further developments are required for APS technology to compete with the CCD for high-end scientific imaging applications. The main areas requiring development are in achieving backside illuminated, deep depletion devices with low dark signal and low noise sampling techniques.
Supervisor: Holland, A. ; Castelli, C. Sponsor: Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council ; e2v Technologies
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) ; Charge-coupled device (CCD) ; Quantum efficiency (QE) ; Charge conversion gain (responsivity) ; Pixel capacitance