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Title: The development of an integrated routing and carbon dioxide emissions model for goods vehicles
Author: Palmer, Andrew
ISNI:       0000 0001 3464 9703
Awarding Body: Cranfield University
Current Institution: Cranfield University
Date of Award: 2007
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The issues of global warming and climate change are a worldwide concern and the UK government has committed itself to major reductions in CO2 emissions, the most significant of the six greenhouse gases. Road transport currently accounts for about 22% of total UK emissions of CO2, and has been steadily rising. Therefore, initiatives are required to try and reduce the gas emissions in this sector. The aim of this research has been to develop a computer based vehicle routing model that calculates the overall amount of CO2 emitted from road journeys, as well as time and distance. The model has been used to examine a number of delivery strategies to assess how CO2 emissions vary. The aim has not been to produce new mathematical theories, but to produce an innovative basis for routing which will provide new information and knowledge about how CO2 emissions vary for different minimisation and congestion criteria. The approach used in this research brings together elements from transportation planning and environmental modelling combined with logistics based vehicle routing techniques. The model uses a digitised road network containing predicted traffic volumes, to which speed flow formulae are applied so that a good representation of speed can be generated on each of the roads. This means that the model is uniquely able to address the issue of congestion in the context of freight vehicle routing. It uses driving cycle data to apply variability to the generated speeds to reflect acceleration and deceleration so that fuel consumption, and therefore CO2, can be estimated. Integrated within the model are vehicle routing heuristics to enable routes to be produced which minimise the specified criterion of time, distance or CO2. The results produced by the model show that there is a potential to reduce CO2 emissions by about 5%. However, when other transport externalities are considered overall benefits are dependent on road traffic volumes.
Supervisor: Towriss, John Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Vehicle routing and scheduling ; Speed-flow ; Driving cycles ; Transportation plannin ; Fuel consumption and emissions ; Social cost of carbon ; Externalities ; Heuristics