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Title: On wide dynamic range logarithmic CMOS image sensors
Author: Choubey, Bhaskar
ISNI:       0000 0001 3548 3864
Awarding Body: University of Oxford
Current Institution: University of Oxford
Date of Award: 2006
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Logarithmic sensors are capable of capturing the wide dynamic range of intensities available in nature with minimum number of bits and post-processing required. A simple circuit able to perform logarithmic capture is one utilising a MOS device in weak inversion. However, the output of this pixel is crippled due to fixed pattern noise. Technique proposed to reduce this noise fail to produce high quality images on account of unaccounted high gain variations in the pixel. An electronic calibration technique is proposed which is capable of reducing both multiplicative as well as additive FPN. Contrast properties matching that of human eye are reported from these sensors. With reduced FPN, the pixel performance at low intensities becomes concerning. In these regions, the high leakage current of the CMOS process affects the logarithmic pixel. To reduce this current, two different techniques using a modified circuit and another with modified layout are tested. The layout technique is observed to reduce the leakage current. In addition, this layout can be used to linearise the output of logarithmic pixel in low light regions. The unique linear response at low light and logarithmic pixel at high light is further investigated. A new model based on the device physics is derived to represent this response. The fixed pattern noise profile is also investigated. An intelligent iterative scheme is proposed and verified to extract the photocurrent flowing in the pixel and correct the fixed pattern noise utilising the new model. Future research ideas leading to better designs of logarithmic pixels and post-processing of these signals are proposed at the end of the thesis.
Supervisor: Collins, Steve Sponsor: Rhodes Trust
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Electronics ; Electrical engineering ; Information engineering ; Image understanding ; Mathematical modeling (engineering) ; Optoelectronics ; Sensors ; Robotics ; analogue ; subthreshold ; logarithmic ; image sensor ; calibration ; dark current ; fixed pattern noise ; contrast threshold