Use this URL to cite or link to this record in EThOS:
Title: Investigation of a digital FEM Height Reference Surface as vertical reference system
Author: Schneid, Sascha
ISNI:       0000 0001 3556 1607
Awarding Body: Nottingham Trent University
Current Institution: Nottingham Trent University
Date of Award: 2007
Availability of Full Text:
Access from EThOS:
Access from Institution:
In recent years, the number of precise online DGNSS (Differential Global Navigation Satellite System) applications has significantly increased. Precise DGNSS correction services have been created that enable an online positioning with accuracy in the centimetre region. In contrast to the co-ordinates found by DGNSS, the measured height needs to be transformed. This is because national height systems refer to a physically defined Height Reference Surface, HRS, that approximates the mean sea level, while the height derived from DGNSS positioning is the height above the WGS84 (World Geodetic System 1984), a mathematical model of the earth and is therefore called "ellipsoidal height". So for the application of precise DGNSS services and for the generation of transformation messages, such as RTCM 3.0, there is an urgent need for a HRS, in a unified datum with appropriate accuracy. This thesis deals with the coneept of the Digital FEM (Finite Element Method) Height Reference Surface, DFHRS. This concept enables the rigorous least squares adjustment of any HRS related observation. The HRS is modelled as continuous surface by a local Taylor-series expansion in a grid of FEM-meshes. W ith this, areas of any size may be computed. The theory of the DFHRS and further development of the mathematical model, especially the incorporation of observed gravity accelerations, are the main parts of this thesis. As the applied Taylor-series expansion of the DFHRS concept only holds for a twodimensional approximation. Spherical Cap Harmonics, SCH, had to he introduced as auxiliary parameter, to give a complete representation of the local gravity field. Spherical Cap Harmonics, SCH, may he interpreted as the general case of Spherical Harmonics, SH, that have been applied in geodetic applications for decades. The goal of the SCH coefficients, in contrast to the SH coefficients is that they may be applied over areas with limited extent. Due to numerical reasons, the combined least squares estimation of the DFHRS and the SCH coefficients in practical computations had to he done applying a sequential procedure. In practical examples, different HRS representations with centimetre accuracy were computed by combining GNSS/Levelling points and precise gravimetric geoid models according to the DFHRS coneept. In a further example, gravity acceleration ohseiwations and a global geopotential model have been introduced into a combined least squares estimation of SCH coefficients. It could he shown that the introduction of the gravity accelerations leads to a significant improvement of the representation of the local gravity field. To perform a two step adjustment, height anomalies were derived fiom the determined SCH coefficients and introduced together with GNS S/Levelling points into a second adjustment according to the DFHRS concept. By comparison with a reference model, the resulting aceuracy of the HRS representation was estimated to be 0.025m.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available