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Title: Evaluation and beneficiation of silica sand and kaolinitic sandstone in south of Jordan
Author: Alali, Jamal
ISNI:       0000 0001 3578 2426
Awarding Body: University of Nottingham
Current Institution: University of Nottingham
Date of Award: 2001
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Silica sand (SS) samples from the Hanout area of Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician sandstone and the kaolinitic sandstone (KS) samples from the Wadi Es Siq-Rakyia area of Lower Cretaceous in south of Jordan were studied and assessed as a source of glass sand. A detailed mineralogical, geochemical, and grain size distribution analysis was carried out using XRD, XRF, SEM, and binocular microscopy. Heavy mineral separation was conducted using heavy liquids and spirals. Attrition scrubbing trials were performed on various size fractions to assess the benefit of attrition scrubbing in upgrading the silica sand. Upgrading the silica sand included removing or reducing the content of the contaminant oxides (i.e., Al2O3, Fe2O3, TiO2, CaO, and MgO) and the heavy minerals. The aim of this project was to achieve this upgrading through the use of inexpensive and relatively simple processing techniques. Kaolin was also concentrated in the fine fraction after attrition scrubbing and wet screening of the kaolinitic sandstone sample. Following the initial sample characterisation at “bench scale”, a pilot plant study was performed on bulk samples of both the silica sand and the kaolinitic sandstone. A high-grade glass sand product of 500-125μm size fraction was produced from both samples by dry and wet screening, attrition scrubbing and the separation of heavy minerals using spirals. Due to the relatively low level of impurities in the raw material, a high silica sand recovery was produced with a high silica grade when the middling fraction was combined with that of the product fraction. The mass flowrate of the feeds and the products in the spiral was calculated for both SS and KS samples as well as in the hydrocyclones for the – 125μm fraction of the KS sample. The amount of water required to operate the pilot plant was calculated. The high quality glass sand produced compared well with the Grade A British Standard for glass sand. The silica sand product was clearly capable of being used in the high quality glass industry and in many other applications where pure silica is required. A kaolin-enriched product was produced from the –125μm wet screened fraction of the kaolinitic sandstone following the use of small diameter hydrocyclones. A moderate quality of kaolin with low recovery was produced from the KS sample, which could be used in the ceramic industry for tableware and sanitaryware.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Kaolin