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Title: Optical and acoustic investigation of laser-generated cavitation
Author: Schiffers, Werner Paul
ISNI:       0000 0001 3555 0406
Awarding Body: Loughborough University
Current Institution: Loughborough University
Date of Award: 1997
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Cavitation is the formation of vapour filled bubbles in a liquid. They can be generated either by the reduction of the ambient water pressure at constant temperature or by a temperature increase at constant pressure. In the results of the experiments presented in this work a range of different diameter cavitation bubbles were generated by focusing pulses of near IR radiation (le = 1064 nm) from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser of varying energy in a small water tank. Single exposure high speed shadow photography and Schlieren techniques are used to visualise the oscillating motion of the cavitation bubbles with high temporal and spatial resolution. The optical analysis of the cavitation bubble in free water shows a smooth symmetrical oscillating motion during the first cycle. When the bubble is collapsing near a solid boundary the motion becomes asymmetrical. The Schlieren images in combination with matching plots of a thin film polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) pressure transducer confirm the formation of a liquid jet as well as different shock wave emissions for certain bubble to boundary parameters. They also indicate the importance of the resulting fluid flow to stresses induced in the solid boundary. In an attempt to visualise the fluid flow field around an oscillating cavitation bubble the IR laser radiation is focused in a solution of copper sulphate (CUS04) for contrast enhancement. High speed photography in combination with an accurately positioned Schlieren knife edge displays the heated path of the laser beam and the different shapes of the cavitation bubble. For the case of a bubble in free space the marked laser path indicates radial fluid flow only. For a bubble in front of a solid boundary the marked laser path clearly shows the motion of the fluid into the toroidal shaped bubble during the collapse process. For this case the marked paths are similar to numerically calculated streamline plots. In contrast to the solid boundary a flexible boundary was also used. The interaction of the cavitation bubble with the flexible boundary visualises partially the movement of the water but is found to still destroy some of the symmetry of the bubble.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Shock waves; High speed photography