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Title: Toxicity of cadmium in hepatocytes
Author: Ng, Jasmine Christina
ISNI:       0000 0001 3444 9648
Awarding Body: University of Surrey
Current Institution: University of Surrey
Date of Award: 1986
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Freshly isolated hepatocytes from fed and starved rats were used as a model in the investigation of the mechanisms by which cadmium chloride exerts its toxic effects at the cellular level. Exposure to cadmium chloride resulted in a slight decrease in viability, more pronounced in hepatocytes from starved rats. Morphological changes preceded the increase in membrane permeability. Hepatocytes exhibited a rapid initial uptake of cadmium chloride, followed by a second slower phase. The accumulation of more metal in hepatocytes from starved rats may contribute to their enhanced susceptibility to cadmium chloride. Adverse metabolic effects of cadmium chloride included an increase in the lactate:pyruvate ratio in hepatocytes from fed rats, with a concomitant decrease in the 3-hydroxybutyrate:acetoacetate ratio in hepatocytes from fed and starved rats. Incubation with cadmium chloride resulted in increased glycogenolysis and glycolysis. Decreased rates of gluconeogenesis from lactate and pyruvate reflected the decreased uptake of gluconeogenic precursors. Studies of intracellular lactate concentrations could not resolve whether the decrease in gluconeogenesis was due to an inhibition of lactate transport into the hepatocyte or due to a decrease in its metabolism. Cadmium chloride caused a slight decrease in the basal and pyruvate-stimulated rates of cellular respiration, a marked dose-related decrease with lactate, and no significant effects with succinate. Carbonyl- cyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone was less effective in stimulating respiration in hepatocytes incubated with cadmium chloride, this effect being more pronounced with lactate and pyruvate than with succinate. Cadmium chloride had little effect on the uncoupled rates of FADH2 oxidation with succinate suggesting that electron transport from succinate dehydrogenase to cytochrome a/a3 was not impaired. The results from these studies suggest a primary effect of cadmium chloride on mitochondrial function and cellular energy production, resulting in secondary metabolic changes in an attempt to overcome the declining levels of ATP within the cell.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Cadmium toxicity studies