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Title: An evaluation of practical work at intermediate stage in biology in Pakistan, with special reference to science process skills
Author: Ahmed, Qudsia Rifat
ISNI:       0000 0001 3402 376X
Awarding Body: Keele University
Current Institution: Keele University
Date of Award: 1987
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This study investigates the extent to which the processes of science are in evidence in the practical work of Intermediate Biology courses in Pakistan. Analysis of the officially prescribed practical guide shows that most of the investigations are at Level One of inquiry, while in the more popular guides - written by Pakistani writers - most investigations are at Level Zero. Lecturers' responses in questionnaires and interviews show that, except for observation skill, their priority is for content and not for process skills, and that has been found to be consistent with systematic observations made of their practices in laboratory classes. The textbook used on the course does not noticeably affect the lecturers' responses. Students are found to value their practical work in Biology for catering for content to the exclusion of process skills. The eight science skills judged by lecturers as being those which their students perform most skilfully were established. Criterion referenced test on a random six of these were developed and students tested. Results show the limited number of students reaching competency in each skill, including observation. However, in every case more students reach the level for competency in colleges using the prescribed practical guide, and significantly more reach competency in a greater number of the skills, than amongst students in colleges using other texts. An explanation for this result is suggested. The form of the practical examination is found to be a major factor in determining the lecturers' priorities and practices. Evidence is presented in support of an alternative form of practical assessment as being likely to be effective in serving to focus attention on the processes of science and cause students to develop them, in this way helping to meet the requirement laid down in the current policy statement for science education in Pakistan.
Supervisor: Dudley, Brian Sponsor: Center for Research Libraries
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: L Education (General)