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Title: Processing and rheological studies of cellulosic materials
Author: Tsang, Sideny C. N.
ISNI:       0000 0001 3537 0472
Awarding Body: Sheffield City Polytechnic
Current Institution: Sheffield Hallam University
Date of Award: 1987
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The present studies are concerned with the modelling of the manufacturing process of nitrocellulose-base propellant in which cellulose acetate is substituted as a model for the explosive nitrocellulose. An investigation of the inter-relationships between processing and rheological and morphological properties has been carried out on cellulose acetate doughs, using modified torque and capillary extrusion rheometers. Some of the doughs show a yield stress and behave as Herschel-Bulkley fluids. The yield stress is found to be smaller than that of nitrocellulose doughs, and there is some evidence of shear heating. Mixing time and mixing temperature showed no influence on the rheological parameters of the doughs. These results suggest that the change in rheological properties of propellant doughs is attributed to the change in crystallinity and fibrosity after processing. The rheological properties of doughs are greatly affected by extrusion temperature, solvent, plasticiser and filler content. The interaction between the solvents and plasticisers with cellulose acetate was explained by adopting a model consisting of a rigid backbone chain from which protruded flexible side groups. In good solvents these side groups extend causing interactions between molecules, giving rise to dough up and elasticity. In poor solvents, dough up becomes difficult and the elasticity is low because the flexible side groups retract towards the stiff backbone chain. The morphology of solvated doughs is examined using solution viscometry, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, differential scanning calorimetry, x-ray diffraction and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis. All these techniques showed that the solvation process had no significant effect on the molecular architecture of the cellulose acetate, in which the original crystallinity of the material is low. From this it was concluded that changes in the rheological properties of nitrocellulose doughs as a function of the process variables was due to changes induced in the crystallites rather than in the amorphous regions.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Explosive propellant mixes