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Title: InP based 77 GHz monolithic millimetre wave integrated circuits
Author: Lodhi, Tariq
ISNI:       0000 0001 3612 0715
Awarding Body: University of Glasgow
Current Institution: University of Glasgow
Date of Award: 2001
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The aim of this work was to design, fabricate and characterize InP high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) based monolithic millimetre wave integrated circuits (MMIC) which operate at 770Hz. To achieve this active and passive circuit elements were designed, fabricated and characterized and accurate equivalent circuit models extracted. All circuits were designed with coplanar waveguide (CPW) as the transmission medium. Electron beam lithography was used for most fabrication processes in this work. A range of passive elements such as CPW discontinuities, series and parallel MIM and interdigital capacitors of different sizes and NiCr resistors were designed fabricated and measured. Equivalent circuit models of these elements were extracted which were shown to be valid to 110 OHz. Passive circuits such as branch-line coupler, rat-race coupler, Lange coupler and Wilkinson divider were successfully demonstrated at W-band frequencies. In all cases the circuits have equal power splitting characteristics with low insertion losses and very good input and output match over large bandwidth. Equivalent circuits of these circuits were extracted and were used in design of MMICs. Active devices were fabricated on a lattice matched InAIAs/InOaAs InP HEMT material structure. Two different 0.12 f..UD T -gate processes were used to make these devices with a UVIIIIPMMA based process giving superior high frequency performance when compared to a conventional CopolymerlPMMA based T -gate structure. The end to end gate resistance of UVIIIIPMMA T -gate was comparable to the lowest 0.1 J..lm gate resistance ever reported. The HEMTs fabricated in this work have shown fT as high as 1930Hz and MAO of 13 dB at 940Hz. Equivalent circuit models of these HEMTs were extracted and were valid up to 1100Hz. These passive and active circuit models were used to design MMICs, in particular reactively matched single ended, balanced and balanced switching amplifiers at 77 OHz. Direct carrier modulators including BPSK, bi-phase amplitude modulation, QPSK and QAM were designed, fabricated and measured at 770Hz. These modulators are designed with reflection type topology to perform the different modulation schemes. The Balanced BPSK modulator circuit was used to ' .. ~ . demonstrate switching operation· with ON-OFF isolation better than 25 dB. The Pagel Abstract two ON states showed 180±5° phase difference which is almost ideal for BPSK modulation. For all states, the input and output reflections were measured to be better than -17 dB at the design frequency. In the case of QAM and QPSK modulation, the circuits showed non-ideal performance with high insertion loss and phase errors but the input and out put reflections were better than -10 dB.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: TK Electrical engineering. Electronics Nuclear engineering