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Title: Elemental concentrations in blood from diabetic and non-diabetic coronary artery bypass patients using neutron activation analysis and proton induced X-ray emission analyses
Author: Ridge, Charlotte
ISNI:       0000 0001 3518 328X
Awarding Body: University of Surrey
Current Institution: University of Surrey
Date of Award: 2001
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Diabetes is one of the fastest growing diseases today, affecting over a million people in the UK. Numerous medical complications, such as heart disease, are regularly associated with diabetes. Despite advances in methods of diagnosis and treatment there is still a need for greater understanding of these diseases. This will include research directed towards the influence of specific treatments and reasons for the high incidence of diabetes and heart disease in 'at risk' populations. Changes in elemental status are associated as the cause or effect of various diseased states. Elemental imbalance in diabetics can result in impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance and in sufferers of heart disease elemental changes impair heart rate and elasticity of blood vessels. In the UK 10,000 patients with Ischaemic Heart Disease undergo coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery each year. Elemental analysis has been carried out on blood samples collected from a group of patients admitted to hospital for bypass surgery. Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) have been applied as complementary analytical tools for determining elemental concentrations. Differences have been examined between CABG patients with and without diabetes. Both experimental methods have been used to investigate elemental levels in whole blood, erythrocytes and plasma. Elemental concentration varied according to the blood constituent and reflected short and long-term influences on elemental homeostasis. Plasma was found to concentrate Na, Mg and Ca the highest using both experimental techniques. All blood samples were collected and prepared at St. George's Hospital, Tooting in the UK. An additional study was conducted to investigate the influence of the bypass operation on the patient's elemental status. Whole blood was obtained at pre (1h before operation), post (1-2 hours after operation) and recovery (24 hours after completion of the operation) stages of bypass surgery. Differences between the three phases were observed, individual variations have been plotted so rates of change can be seen and evaluated with the particular medical history. Concentrations of Na, Mg, Al, P, S, Cl, K, Ca and Fe in whole blood were determined. The two measurement techniques found different concentrations however results showed a general trend that post operative concentrations were elevated compared to pre operative values. Analysis of blood drawn during the recovery phase, 24 hours after the surgery, found that concentration were typically approaching pre operative levels. Both PIXE and INAA found concentrations of Na, Mg and Al peaked post operation and then decreased in the recovery phase, towards values measured pre surgery. Various factors may be responsible for the elemental changes occurring during surgery including, hormone production, routine administration of intra-operative fluids and contact of blood with non- endothelial surfaces. Hierarchical cluster analysis has been used to confirm differences between elemental levels in pre, post and recovery stages of bypass surgery. The dendograms produced indicate significant distinction between the three stages. The explosive impact of diabetes in the UK resident Asian population is discussed and the influence of diabetogenic agents introduced. Examination of research literature revealed that betel nut has been implicated as a causative agent in several medical conditions. Samples of Betel nut and six associated chewing materials widely used in Asian communities has been collected and prepared for analysis. Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been used to determine the concentration of Na, Mg, Al, Cl, Ca, V, Mn, Cu and Br in the samples by means of short-lived radionuclides.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Diabetes; Ischaemic heart disease; Analysis