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Title: Thermodynamics of metal ion cryptates and cryptand 222 in dipolar aprotic solvents
Author: Ghousseini, Lily
ISNI:       0000 0001 3496 2652
Awarding Body: University of Surrey
Current Institution: University of Surrey
Date of Award: 1985
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Thermodynamic parameters of transfer of single-ions from water to nitromethane are obtained using the Ph4AsPh4B convention suggested by Parker. Enthalpies of complexing of alkali-metal and silver cations with cryptand 222 in N,N-dimethylformamide, dimethylsulphoxide, propylene carbonate, acetonitrile and nitromethane were determined calorimetrically. The stability constants of alkali-metal and silver cryptates in nitromethane were determined by potentiometric titration. This is the first set of data ever reported for the thermodynamic parameters of complexing of metal-ions with cryptand 222 in nitromethane. Free energies and enthalpies are combined to give entropies of complexing of metal-ion cryptates in the dipolar aprotic solvents. Some enthalpy of complexing data in methanol are reviewed. A correlation is found between the enthalpy of transfer of a given cation and the difference in enthalpy of complexing of metal cation with cryptand 222 among two dipolar aprotic solvents. This correlation could provide a means of evaluating single-ion enthalpies of transfer among dipolar aprotic solvents from enthalpy of complexing data. Enthalpies and free energies of complexation of metal-ion cryptates in N,N-dimethylformamide, dimethylsulphoxide, propylene carbonate, acetonitrile and nitromethane are used with relevant data to obtain the thermodynamic parameters for transfer of metal-ion cryptates from water to these solvents, and from propylene carbonate to the other dipolar aprotic GO solvents. The results obtained show variation in DeltaG°t, DeltaH°t and Deltas°t values for the metal-ion cryptates are predominantly found in transfers from water, with unappreciable variations in these parameters for transfer among dipolar aprotic solvents. The latter conclusion is based on a large number of experimental calorimetric data and suggests that cryptate conventions seem to be valid among dipolar aprotic solvents. The use of cryptand 222 for the extraction of alkali-metal salts from water into nitromethane is discussed. The thermodynamic parameters for extraction process in water-pure nitromethane system are obtained.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Physical chemistry