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Title: A study of postnatal skeletal development in the domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus)
Author: Hogg, David Alexander
ISNI:       0000 0001 3580 0786
Awarding Body: University of Glasgow
Current Institution: University of Glasgow
Date of Award: 1977
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3 topics of avian postnatal skeleton development where marked differences are found in tine mammalian counterpart have been studied in the domestic fowl. These are: i. centres of ossification ii. fusions iii. pneumatisation In reviewing the literature on each topic the apparent controversies encountered were examined to determine whether these involved real factual differences or only differences in terminology. As no official avian anatomical terminology has yet been agreed the terms employed in this study have been clearly defined. The Investigations were carried out on related birds from the same hatches and the period of investigation extended from the time of hatching to 182 days (26 weeks) postnatal. On some topics adult surveys were performed on a group of related birds. 1. Centres of ossification present at hatching and those developing postnatally have been Identified and shown. Included were the ossification centres of the hyoid and the centres of mineralisation in the larynx, trachea, syrinx and limb tendons. The timing of appearance of the postnatally developing centres was studied and the range and mean time of appearance of each was calculated and shown. In the skull a centre which v/as termed the orbitosphenoid was found to develop postnatally. The extensive controversy regarding the bones in this region has been reviewed. The intervals between the initial mineralisation of the larynx and trachea as 2. indicated by alizarin staining and their eventual ossification Identified by histological examination has been investigated. The occurrence of some variable centres in the digits of the manus, sesamoids and mineralised tendons has been surveyed in a flock of adult birds. The proximal tibial centre of the bird has been compared with the centres in this region in the mammal and their identities discussed. ii. The sites of fusion which occur in the postnatal skeleton in the neurocranium, mandible, vertebral column, sternum, os coxae, carpus and metacarpus and tarsus have been localised and shown. The timing of each fusion has been investigated and the range of fusion time and mean fusion time for each has been calculated and shown. Where possible, comparisons have been made of the results obtained by alizarin staining with those from radiography, of male birds with female and between 2 breeds. Some aspects of the anatomy of the intercentral articulations of the with thoracic vertebra which may have some clinical or pathological significance have been described. iii. The gross and histological structure of pneumatised bone has been shown. The occurrence of pneumatisation in the skull has been studied in detail in 8 birds by gross and histological examination of the Individual constituent skull bones. An adult survey was performed on 51 birds to investigate the extent of pneumatisation ip their skeletons and the variation present within a similar group. Comparison of male and female birds was made as far as the data permitted. Correlations were sought between the extents in different skeletal regions in individual birds. The timing of the development of the process in the postnatal skeleton has been studied and 3. comparisons of the rate of development In male and female birds and in 2 breeds have been made where possible. Several methods of Investigation have been employed, gross examination with and without prior injection, histological examination, transillumination of the macerated skull and radiography of the humerus, and their relative merits have been discussed.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Human anatomy & human histology