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Title: The dynamic aspects of competitive emotions of martial artists
Author: Cerin, Ester
ISNI:       0000 0001 3525 6426
Awarding Body: Nottingham Trent University
Current Institution: Nottingham Trent University
Date of Award: 2001
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This thesis examined some dynamic aspects of competitive emotional states. For this purpose, an interactional model of competitive stress that emphasises the temporal dimensions of the athlete-competition relationship has been proposed. Four studies that analysed several methodological and substantial issues pertaining to definition, measurement and determinants of competitive emotional states were conducted. The first study tested the appropriateness of the Experience Sampling M ethod (ESM), the conventional time-to-competition paradigm and retrospective assessments for the analysis of the dynamic aspects of pre-competitive stress. Results revealed that the ESM constitutes the most appropriate method for the in-depth examination of complex dynamic aspects of the competitive process. With respect to retrospective assessments, it was concluded that they provide a reliable general indication of athletes' pre-competitive emotional states but they cannot reveal finer temporal and qualitative aspects of athletes' emotional experience. The study also showed that, although anxiety symptoms as measured by the modified version Competitive State Anxiety Inventory - 2 (CSAI-2; Jones & Swain, 1992) were on average considered facilitative to performance, substantial intraindividual differences were observed. This suggested that qualitative differences between facilitative and debilitative anxiety patterns, and factors determining them, needed to be analysed and the construct validity of the CSAI-2 needed to be tested. The purpose of the following two studies was to test some of the propositions presented in the interactional model of competitive stress regarding the definition and directional interpretation of competitive anxiety. Results supported the hypothesis that competitive anxiety is not a unitary emotion but a complex changeable emotional state, which is determined by situational and personal factors. Results also suggested that the cognitive subscale of the CSAI-2 has poor construct validity and its use should be avoided. It was concluded that, from a practical and theoretical viewpoint, there is not much sense in focusing on the complex and controversial affective phenomenon of anxiety without considering other important aspects of an individual's emotional experience. The purpose of the fourth study was to integrate and elaborate further the findings from the previous three studies with regard to the interactional model of competitive stress. The ESM was employed to examine some situational and personal determinants of pre- and postcompetition discrete emotions in male martial artists. Results showed that the competitive event was on average one of the most important, stressfiil and challenging episodes that athletes experienced in the examined period. Temporal proximity to competition, type and cognitive appraisal of sources of concern, expected and actual performance, neuroticism, extraversion and competitive trait anxiety determined magnitude and/or temporal patterns of athletes' pre- and post-competition emotional states. The programme of research conducted in this thesis has provided evidence of the utility of a multivariate multilevel time-based approach to the study of the athletecompetition relationship. It also indicated the necessity to analyse a broad range of easily definable discrete emotions rather than focusing solely on competitive anxiety. Future research will need to detail various aspects of competitive stress from a time-based perspective in both genders and in different sports and age groups.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Temporal patterns; CSAI-2; Anxiety direction