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Title: Application of gamma-ray tomographic techniques in granular flows in hoppers
Author: Nikitidis, Michail S.
ISNI:       0000 0001 3446 9753
Awarding Body: University of Surrey
Current Institution: University of Surrey
Date of Award: 1997
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The aim of this dissertation is to demonstrate the potential of novel measurement techniques based on the scanning of gamma-ray transmission in the investigation of axially-symmetric flow properties of granular materials in 3D hoppers. Furthermore, the results of the experimental investigations are compared on a strictly quantitative basis with Newtonian Dynamics (i.e. Discrete Element simulations) and Molecular Dynamics (i.e. kinetic gas theory calculations). Measurements were performed using two specially constructed scanner systems of different geometric configuration of gamma-ray sources and detectors(namely parallel and fan beam arrangements respectively). The fan beam scanner has been developed entirely in the Department of Chemical & Process Engineering by the author of this thesis and therefore a significant part of the thesis deals with major points concerning both hardware and software development as well as associated calibration procedures. Gas-phase continuous mono-disperse systems have been studied using (i) the full tomographic imaging technique which is able to produce 3D planar maps of voidage at selected heights of a storage vessel and (ii) the single profile absorptiometric technique capable of producing voidage profiles in both Cartesian and polar coordinates at much faster acquisition rates. Results were compared with earlier Distinct Element numerical simulations showing encouraging agreement in terms of both the absolute values of voidage and their spatial fluctuations as well as the geometric structure of the static and dynamic particle assemblies. Size segregation in air borne binary mixtures have been quantified using the novel dual energy photon technique which is capable of producing solids fraction profiles for each of the individual components of a binary mixture in addition to the voidage profiles. Spatial and temporal data on solids fractions in a binary mixture were analysed using methodology based on statistical mechanics principles which led to the definition of "micro-turbulence" during flow in terms of the self-diffusion velocities of individual solid components. This then allows the calculation of both the self- and mutual-diffusion coefficients used to quantify size segregation. These calculations were also compared with theoretical predictions based on the kinetic gas theory which was found to grossly over-predict the calculated diffusion coefficients in slow-shearing granular flows.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Multiphase flow measurement