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Title: An illuminative study of curriculum changes in English language teaching and learning in Pakistan
Author: Memon, Muhammad
ISNI:       0000 0001 3393 4457
Awarding Body: University of Surrey
Current Institution: University of Surrey
Date of Award: 1989
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Pakistan's curriculum change mechanism is based on a bureaucratic model in which teachers are 'humble servants' of the system. The study is concerned with understanding the teachers' and students' perspective on innovations developed externally to the schools in the realms of teaching and learning English as an Additional Compulsory Language. Further, it explores a possible alternative curriculum development model, grounded in the learning context, which may improve the existing situation. Schwab's (1973) 'deliberative approach' and Kelly's (1955) 'theory of personal construct psychology' provided the theoretical underpinning to a naturalistic approach to the inquiry. A modified form of Parlett and Dearden's (1977) illuminative evaluation method allowed for an emergent research design model which included both the survey and case studies as complementary methods. The former provided information for generating 'working hypotheses' while the latter allowed for in-depth probing in the natural setting. The case studies indicated that teachers were faced with a conflict of demands between the desired goals of innovation and the current examination system. They were not familiar with the innovation and they lacked a support mechanism to guide their classroom actions. Consequently, they fell back on various survival strategies. The main sources of the practical problems were identified: governing factors (teachers' personal theories), frame factors (instructional milieu) and social factors (learning milieu). Mismatch between teachers' teaching styles and students' preferred learning strategies also produced problems. This detail accords with the general sources of the failure of curriculum innovation attempts in both developed and developing countries as identified in the literature. The proposed alternative model contains five main dimensions as a basis for formulating coherent curriculum change policy: curriculum negotiations; curriculum materials; professional development; reflective teaching; supportive mechanisms. The feasibility of this model is discussed in the light of the research findings and relevant literature. Some conclusions are drawn with the implications for further research described.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Teaching English in Pakistan