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Title: Daylighting and shading for thermal comfort in Malaysian buildings.
Author: Ahmed, Azni Zain.
ISNI:       0000 0001 3401 5735
Awarding Body: University of Herfordshire
Current Institution: University of Hertfordshire
Date of Award: 2000
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A study on the potential of daylighting as a source of indoor lighting in Malaysian buildings is described. Not much work has been done on daylighting in Malaysia, due to several factors. Firstly, local daylight data is unavailable and secondly, research in daylighting design is relatively new. This work is therefore aimed at providing a solid foundation in daylighting knowledge and to contribute towards the development of deSign tools and strategies for buildings in a hot, humid climate, in particular Malaysia. The work began with a survey of traditional and modern buildings to identify old and new daylighting techniques. From the daylighting point of view, recently built buildings in general, are not designed for the tropics. The bioclimatic approach was used to identify the passive strategies to keep Malaysian buildings thermally comfortable for the occupants. The Model Year Climate accurate hourly data for 8 climate parameters were produced by statistical analyses from a database of 21 years of meteorological data. A field study to determine the thermal comfort conditions of young persons in a normal working environment was also carried as part of the bioclimatic analyses. From the results of the three studies, a strategy was formulated to create a low-energy yet thermally comfortable building environment for the hot-humid region by integrating daylighting in the building design through the size of window openings and types of shading devices. The prevailing sky type in the Klang Valley was determined using solar irradiation and cloud cover data. The sky type was identified, and confirmed by four identification techniques, as predominantly intermediate. As daylight and solar irradiation share similar physical properties, hourly daylight data were modelled using solar irradiation data and luminous efficacy values. An artificial sky was designed and constructed to conduct daylighting experiments using architectural scale models. The correlation coefficient of the luminance produced by the sky simulator as compared to the intermediate sky luminance model was 0.996. This study focussed on sidelighting, which is the most common daylighting strategy in Malaysia. The daylighting performance of several window opening sizes ranging from 10% up to 40% window-to-wall ratio and several types of shading devices were investigated using the Daylight Factor Method. A suitable architectural scale model of a basic room with one removable wall, on which the fenestration systems were attached, was used for the investigations. The optimum window opening size was found to be 25% where daylight is enhanced and energy consumption for cooling load is reduced. The best shading device tested for buildings in the Malaysian climate was found to be a sloped shading device integrated with a horizontal light shelf. This device has the capability to reduce excess lighting while maintaining the required daylight levels in a normal working environment as recommended by the Malaysia Guidelines for Energy Efficiency in Buildings. The results of the daylighting performance of the fenestrations were used together with modelled exterior illuminance data to produce several daylighting design tools. Graphical tools produced to aid architects include iso-OF charts, isolux charts or daylight footprints while look-up tables and nomographs were produced for engineers. The NORMA algorithm was used to calculate the cooling loads of a simple building to demonstrate the possible energy savings as a result of applying the above daylighting strategies. It was found that at least 10% of energy could be saved by integrating daylighting in Malaysian buildings while maintaining acceptable indoor thermal comfort criteria for young Malaysians.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Indoor lighting