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Title: Chemical preservation of some refractory timber species of Malaysia.
Author: Jantan, Mohd Dahlan.
ISNI:       0000 0001 3589 1729
Awarding Body: University of Portsmouth
Current Institution: University of Portsmouth
Date of Award: 1998
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The treatability of six Malaysian timbers namely Red Balau (Shorea guiso), Kapur (Dryobafanops aromatica), Kasai (Pometia pinnata), Kulim (Scorodocarpus borneensis), Kempas (Koompassia malaccensis) and Keruing (Dipterocarpus grandiflorus) using the applied pressure processes (oscillating pressure, conventional Bethell and a modified Bethell process) was investigated. Treatments were carried out with a commercial water-borne copper-chromearsenic (CCA) preservative, known as Celcure-AP. The conventional Bethell process was the most effective method of wood treatment followed by the modified Bethell and the oscillating pressure process. While sufficient preservative retention and absorption was achieved in Kempas and Keruing to meet the Malaysian Standard MS 386 : 1986 specifications for exterior timber used in ground contact, the other four timbers - Red Balau, Kapur, Kasai and Kulim did not fulfil this requirement, even when treated at the most extreme treatment conditions. Using the three pressure processes, seasoning period and treatment time were found to have significant effects on preservative retention and penetration in all timber species. Investigations into the effect of three pretreatment procedures - steaming, incising and ponding to improve the treatability of the six timber species were carried out. Incising was the most effective pretreatment procedure in enhancing the treatability of these timbers. However, at the highest incising density employed (4,500 incisions/m2), it was still not possible to treat Red Balau, Kapur, Kasai and Kulim timber to achieve satisfactory target preservative retention and penetration. The less effective incising procedure was due mainly to the low incising density used. The possibility of improving the treatability of these four timber species further using higher incising densities and other methods of inCising pretreatment is discussed. Steaming, incising and ponding pretreatments had a pronounced effect on the strength properties of timbers based on reduction of their modulus of elasticity (M.D. E.), modulus of rupture (M.O.A.), compressive strength and hardness. The highest strength losses were observed in timbers that had been ponded for 6 months. Significant strength losses were also observed in incised and steamed timbers, but the magnitudes were lower than the 6 month ponding regime. This was attributed to low incising density and the short steaming period. The performance of Celcure-AP in the six timber species was evaluated in laboratory and field tests. In addition, a copper-azole formulation (Tanalith-3485) was also evaluated on Kempas timber. Laboratory tests involved exposure of treated wood blocks to five decay fungi - Pycnoporus sanguineus, Trametes versicolor, Coniophora puteana, Gloeophyllum trabeum and Oligoporus placenta. The less durable timbers - Kempas and Keruing needed a higher loading of Celcure-AP in order to give equal performance compared to the more durable timbers - Red Balau, Kapur, Kasai and Kulim. Based on copper retention in treated samples, a higher loading of Tanalith-3485 was required in Kempas to achieve comparable results to Celcure-AP treated samples. However, the concentration levels of Tanalith-3485 used in the present study were sufficient to afford protection to Kempas stakes exposed for 36 months in the field test. A longer exposure period is however, recommended for a full evaluation of timber/preservative combinations against wood deteriorating organisms under Malaysian conditions. In the field test, soft rot fungi were the main causal organisms in the attack of timbers in test site A (fungal test bed), while in test site B stake failure was due mainly to termite attack.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Material degradation & corrosion & fracture mechanics