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Title: Haemocompatibility and charactersation of candidate coatings for heart valve prosthesis.
Author: Jones, Mark I.
Awarding Body: University of Nottingham
Current Institution: University of Nottingham
Date of Award: 1999
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Prosthetic cardiac valve surgery is a well-established technique, but the search continues for engineering materials with sup..e rior mechanical characteristics in order to extend the service life of the implant. The introduction of pyrolytic carbon was seen as a breakthrough in the development of wear resistant, non-thrombogenic materials for such applications. However, thrombo-embolic phenomena and the need for anticoagulation treatment following valve insertion remain the main problems associated with artificial materials in this application. The work carried out in this research has studied the haemocompatibility of a commercially available, wear resistant TiffiN/TiCfDLC multilayer structure, and a second TiN coating deposited by RF reactive sputtering of a titanium target in a ArIN2 environment, as candidate materials for a heart valve prosthesis. The structure of the RF deposited tiN coating was assessed as a function of deposition conditions, and was seen to develop a particular preferred crystallographic orientation. The nature of this texture was influenced by the condition of the underlying substrate. The effect of substrate condition on the biocompatibility of the tiN coating was studied by assessment of fibroblast attachment and spreading, and by haemolytic analysis of released haemoglobin. The results showed that the initial attachment and orientation of fibroblast cells was influenced by the substrate condition, but no influence on the degree of spreading and haemolytic nature was observed. Characterisation of the TiN coating and the components of the multilayer structure was carried out by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), stylus profilometry and contact angle measurement. Haemocompatibility was studied by the interaction of the surfaces with plasma proteins, blood platelets and red blood ceUs. Cytotoxicity was studied using the MTT test. The degree of platelet activation on the surfaces correlated with their surface energy. The greatest degree of platelet spreading was observed on the more hydrophilic coatings. The lack of platelet activation seen on the DLC coating is attributed to its smooth surface and hydrophobic nature, resulting in higher levels of adsorption of anticoagulation proteins. The RF sputtered TiN coating caused significant levels of haemolysis and fibroblast cell death. None of the components of the multilayer structure caused such effects, although thrombus formation was observed to a degree on the Ti, TiN and TiC components of this structure. The toxic nature of the RF deposited TiN coating was not attributed to surface chemistry or roughness, but rather to a combination of the hydrophilic nature and the defect state of the surface.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Diamond-like carbon; Artificial heart valve