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Title: Barriers to implementation of the demand responsive approach (DRA) methodology in urban sanitation programmes : a study of Zambia and South Africa
Author: Mulenga, Martin
ISNI:       0000 0001 3429 480X
Awarding Body: University of Southampton
Current Institution: University of Southampton
Date of Award: 2003
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The main purpose of this investigation is to analyse the potential barriers to the implementation of the Demand Responsive Approach (DRA) in urban poor community sanitation programmes. Over the years, developing countries have been facing enormous backlogs in the provision of sanitation services, especially in urban poor communities, that have resulted partly from the use of inappropriate service approaches, such as supply-led ones, coupled with rapid urbanisation and population growth. To overcome the problem, the World Bank-UNDP sponsored Water and Sanitation Programme (WSP) and other development agencies and scholars have been advocating the use of the DRA as an ideal approach for sanitation programmes in low-income areas. The DRA methodology allows demands of consumers as individuals and as a community to guide key investment decisions. The methodology has been attempted in rural areas with varying success. A comprehensive review of literature was undertaken with a view to identifying the complexity and apparent problems associated with the DRA methodology found by previous researchers. To identify the barriers to the DRA on the ground, both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to collect data from 1,894 male and female heads of households in four urban poor settlements in Zambia and a further four in South Africa. A range of interviews were undertaken with 98 officials in both countries from central government, local government, international organisations, NGOs and the private sector to elicit information about the constraints of the DRA in their view. The findings indicate that there are numerous obstacles including the following: a) Community level - lack of examples of successful programmes undertaken in other urban poor communities; the high level of household poverty; lack of capacity; complexity of the DRA methodology and lack of guidelines on how to implement it; land tenure and home ownership; HIV/AIDS scourge; poor community cohesion; sanitation is not a major priority to the urban poor; and poor links between the poor communities and sanitation agencies. b) Institutional level - lack of skilled manpower; lack of capacity; poor interdepartmental co-operation; public sector reform programmes; poor institutional frameworks and policies; methodology no appropriate for sanitation; and poor financial resources. This thesis therefore concludes that the DRA is not a feasible approach in urban poor settlements of Zambia and South Africa unless these barriers are addressed. Further, the researcher's focus on sanitation provision to the urban poor was in response to the dearth of knowledge and literature on the subject.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Urban poor communities